Period 9 (1900- Present)

  • PLO

    Palestinian Liberation Organization; formed in 1964 with the purpose of creating a homeland for Palestinians in Israel
  • Nuclear Proliferation

    Nuclear Proliferation
    the spread of nuclear weapons to new nations
  • Supply-Side Economics

    Supply-Side Economics
    nickname given to the type of economy that Ronald Reagan brought before Congress; involved, among other things, a 25% tax cut that encouraged budgetary discipline and would hopefully spur investments; however, the plan was not a success and the economy was sent into its deepest recession since the 1930's
  • California v. Bakke

    California v. Bakke
    Supreme Court Decision holding that a state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely because of their race.
  • Sandinistas

    Nicaraguan political organization, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), which came to power in 1979 after overthrowing the dictator Anastasio Somoza. Opposed during most of their period of rule by the US-backed Contras, the Sandinistas were voted out of office in 1990.
  • Moral Majority

    Moral Majority
    further a conservative and religious agenda, including the allowance of prayer in schools and strict laws against abortion.
  • Saddam Hussein

    Saddam Hussein
    leader of Iraq during the middle of the Cold War. Although initially supported by the U.S. to fight Iran, his invasion of Kuwait made him a prime enemy of America.
  • Trickle-Down Economics

    Trickle-Down Economics
    the trickle down effect of government incentives; cut out many welfare and public works programs; used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict; meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War
  • Glasnost & Perestroika

    Glasnost & Perestroika
    openness by soviet government. restructuring soviet economy to be more free market oriented.
  • Bill Clinton

    Bill Clinton
    first democratic president since Jimmy Carter and a self-proclaimed activist. He had a very domestic agenda. escalating inquiry into some banking and real estate ventures involving the president and his wife in the early 1980s. This became known as the Whitewater affair.
  • AIDS

    Huge deadly outbreak in the '70s started with gay men and was labeled the "gay plague" but soon began to affect drug users, hemophiliacs, and minorities. Expensive to treat, no cure. C Everett Koop caused government to spend 1.3 billion on AIDS assistance.
  • Ronald Reagan

    Ronald Reagan
    took tough anti-Soviet positions in foreign policy; championed free-market capitalism w/o gov't restraints; questioned liberal forms of welfare programs and affirmative action policies; encouraged traditional values, individualism, and the centrality of the family.
  • Economic Recovery Tax Act

    Economic Recovery Tax Act
    law that lowered income tax rates and allowed for expensing of depreciable assets.
  • PACTO Strke

    PACTO Strke
    The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization or PATCO was a United States trade union that operated from 1968 until its decertification in 1981 following a strike that was declared illegal and broken by the Reagan Administration
  • Sandra Day O'Connor

    Sandra Day O'Connor
    appointed by Reagan as a Supreme Court justice; brilliant Stanford Law School graduate; first woman to ascend to the high bench in the Court's nearly 200 year history
  • Walter Mondale

    Walter Mondale
    vice president of Carter and when he won the democratic nomination he was defeated by a landslide by Reagae; first presidential candidate to have a woman vice president
  • Brady Bill

    Brady Bill
    a provision of US federal law that requires a waiting period for handgun purchases and background checks on those who wish to purchase handguns.
  • Boland Amendment

    Boland Amendment
    democrats opposed to the administrations policies in Nicaragua passed this to prohibit further aid to the contras
  • Beirut Bombings

    Beirut Bombings
    Beirut barracks bombings were acts of terrorism that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut, Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War.
  • Religious Fundamentalism

    Religious Fundamentalism
    religious movement whose objectives were to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy where every word of the bible is interpreted literally
  • Geraldine Ferraro

    Geraldine Ferraro
    Geraldine Anne "Gerry" Ferraro was an American attorney and Democratic Party politician who served in the United States House of Representatives
  • SDI

    Regan's proposed high-tech, anti-nuclear missile, defense system; said to be scientifically impossible; nicknamed "Star Wars"
  • Tea Party

    Tea Party
    demands a reduction in the U.S. national debt and federal budget deficit by reducing government spending and taxes
  • Iran-Contra Affair

    Iran-Contra Affair
    robert mcfarland came up with the secret plan of selling US antitank and antiaircraft missiles to Irans gov. for its help in freeing the americans held hostage by arabs. oliver north proposed using profits of arm deal with iran to fund the contra in nicaragua
  • William Rehnquist

    William Rehnquist
    American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986,
  • Mikhail Gorbachev

    Mikhail Gorbachev
    Soviet leader installed as chairman of the Soviet Communist party in March 1985. He was personable, energetic, imaginative, and committed to radical reforms in the Soviet Union. He announced two policies with remarkable even revolutionary implications.
  • "Tear Down this Wall"

    "Tear Down this Wall"
    This speech was given at the Brandenburg Gate. This was where the entrance of the Berlin Wall was located and it is where JFK delivered his speech upon his visit to Berlin after WWII. He gave this speech to declare the United States' position on communism and the Soviet Union. This was the United States official backing of the Germans in their attempt to reunify their country.
  • INF Agreement

    INF Agreement
    Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles
  • "Read my lips, no new taxes."

    "Read my lips, no new taxes."
    George H. W. Bush at the 1988 Republican National Convention as he accepted the nomination on August 18. Written by speechwriter Peggy Noonan, the line was the most prominent sound bite from the speech.
  • Tienanmen Square

    Tienanmen Square
    were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    The fall of the wall marked an end to Soviet influence in the country and allowed for Germany to become reunited.
  • Panama Invasion

    Panama Invasion
    The United States Invasion of Panama, code named Operation Just Cause occurred between mid-December
  • Internet

    "Google it"; originally created in the '60's as a way for government and universities to share information; in late 80's the term for the connection was renamed to this term; the world wide web was created in 1990 and used this to send graphics and multi-media across the globe; '93 the first browser was created; millions of computer users use this everyday
  • Lech Walesa

    Lech Walesa
    retired Polish politician and labour activist. He co-founded and headed Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize, served as President of Poland
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability.
  • Breakup of the Soviet Union

    Breakup of the Soviet Union
    Gorbachev decreased nuclear arsenals, Communist Party lost power, Boris Yeltsin (president of Russian Republic) led Muscovites to take control
  • Boris Yeltsin

    Boris Yeltsin
    Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation
  • Persian Gulf War

    Persian Gulf War
    after Iraq invaded Kuwait, the US invaded Iraq to liberate Kuwait; Iraq set Kuwait's oil fields on fire so the Americans couldn't gain the oil; this conflict caused the US to set military bases in Saudi Arabia; also called Operation: Desert Storm
  • Clarence Thomas

    Clarence Thomas
    Clarence Thomas is an American judge, lawyer, and government official who currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
  • NRA

    National Rifle Association of America is an American nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights.
  • Ross Perot

    Ross Perot
    battled with Clinton over free trade but eventually gave the approval for the North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement.
  • Yassar Arafat

    Yassar Arafat
    in 1993 Clinton presided over a historic meeting at the White House between Israeli premier Yitzshak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasir. They agreed in principle on self-rule for the Palestinians within Israel
  • Start I and II

    Start I and II
    congress passed laws to protect consumers. (lemon laws).
    strategic arms reduction talk, 30 percent less nuclear weapons.
  • "Don't ask, don't tell"

    "Don't ask, don't tell"
    The act prohibits any homosexual or bisexual person from disclosing his or her sexual orientation or from speaking about any homosexual relationships, including marriages or other familial attributes, while serving in the United States armed forces. The "don't ask" part of the policy indicates that superiors should not initiate investigation of a service member's orientation in the absence of disallowed behaviors, though mere suspicion of homosexual behavior can cause an investigation.
  • Deficit Reduction Budget

    Deficit Reduction Budget
    shrink the federal deficit to its lowest level in more than a decade. By 1998 Clinton's policies seemed to have caged the ravenous deficit monster, as Congress argued over the unfamiliar question of how to manage federal budget surpluses.
  • West Bank and Gaza Strip

    West Bank and Gaza Strip
    Oslo Accords made agreement (1993) where Israel gave Palestinian self-rule in Gaza Strip and West Bank
  • EU

    political and economic organization of 28 European countries
  • "Ethnic Cleansing"

    "Ethnic Cleansing"
    the killing of hundreds of thousands of members of ethnic and religious minorities
  • Failure of the Health Reform

    Failure of the Health Reform
    market forces rather than the government would control health-care costs and expand access to health care.
    • Opposition from pharmaceutical and insurance industries killed the proposal in 1994.

    Created to allow the free movement of goods between Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. by lessening and eliminating tariffs
  • Newt Gingrich

    Newt Gingrich
    Promoter of the "Contract with America" and the first Republican speaker in 40 years.
  • Oklahoma City Bombing

    Oklahoma City Bombing
    This event brought light to a lurid and secretive underground of paramilitary private "militias' composed of alienated citizens armed to the teeth and ultra suspicious of all government.
  • G-8

    Established to oversee trade agreements, enforce trade rules, and settle disputes.
  • WTO

    Established to oversee trade agreements, enforce trade rules, and settle disputes.
  • Immigration Act of 1996

    Immigration Act of 1996
    The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, vastly changed the immigration laws of the United States
  • Taliban

    A group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996, leader Osama bin Laden, responsible for 9/11, we invaded Afghanistan to get rid of the Taliban who protected Bin Laden
  • Welfare Reform

    Welfare Reform
    This bill made deep cuts in welfare grants and required able-bodied welfare recipients to find employment.
  • Bob Dole

    Bob Dole
    Attorney and retired United States Senator from Kansas (1969-1996) longest serving Republican leader. Was the 1996 presidential nominee for the Republican party but lost to Bill Clinton. (Gerald Ford's VP running mate in 1976 election).
  • Contract with America

    Contract with America
    A republican promise that promised an all-out assault on budget deficits and radical reductions in welfare programs; it succeeded fabulously.
  • Madeline Albright

    Madeline Albright
    the first woman to serve as secretary of state; proved to be more assertive in the use of american pwer
  • Kyoto Accord

    Kyoto Accord
    agreement of 55 industrial nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5.2% each year (USA did not sign under GW Bush)
  • Clinton Impeachment

    Clinton Impeachment
    The impeachment of Bill Clinton was initiated in December 1998 by the House of Representatives and led to a trial in the Senate for the impeachment of Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, on two charges, one of perjury and one of obstruction of justice.
  • Bosnia and Kosovo

    Bosnia and Kosovo
    former Yugoslav province, troops from NATO countries stopped bloodshed here in 1995. former Yugoslav province, troops from NATO countries stopped bloodshed here in 1999
  • George W. Bush

    George W. Bush
    won the Presidential election in 2000 in a hotly contested election; lost popular vote, but won the electoral college; son of previous President George H. Bush
  • Al Gore

    Al Gore
    was VP for Clinton; ran for the Presidency in 2000 against George W. Bush; the highly contested election was ultimately decided by US Supreme Court
  • Housing Bubble

    Housing Bubble
    Sales of new homes in the United States went on a roller-coaster ride, rising by 60 percent between January 2000 and July 2005, before falling by 76 percent between July 2005 and January 2009.
  • Hillary Clinton

    Hillary Clinton
    Prominent child care advocate and health care reformer in Clinton administration; won U.S. senate seat in 2000
  • Bush v. Gore

    Bush v. Gore
    Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000), was a decision of the United States Supreme Court that settled a recount dispute in Florida's 2000 presidential election. The ruling was issued on December 12, 2000. On December 9, the Court had preliminarily halted the Florida recount that was occurring.
  • George H.W. Bush

    George H.W. Bush
    Initiated War on Terrorism after the September 11, 2001, attacks to weed out terrorist operatives throughout the world.
  • Bush Tax Cuts

    Bush Tax Cuts
    Controversial. Charged it favored th wealthy. Used to provide economic stimulus
  • Enron

    eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas, and the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which was one of the five largest audit and accountancy partnerships in the world. In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history at that time, Enron was attributed as the biggest audit failure.
  • Al- Qaeda

    Al- Qaeda
    international alliance of anti-Western Islamic fundamentalist terrorist organizations founded in the late 1980s. Founded by veterans of the Afghan struggle against the Soviet Union, the group is headed by Osama Bin Laden and has taken responsibility for numerous terrorist attacks, especially after the late 1990s. Al Qaeda organized the attacks of September 11, 2001, in the United States,
  • Osama Bin Laden

    Osama Bin Laden
    (1957-2011) Founder of al Qaeda, the terrorist network responsible for the attacks of September 11, 2001, and other attacks.
  • 9/11

    Common shorthand for the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, in which 19 militant Islamist men hijacked and crashed four commercial aircraft. Two planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC, and the fourth, overtaken by passengers, crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania. Nearly 3000 people were killed in the worst case of domestic terrorism in American history.
  • No Child Left Behind

    No Child Left Behind
    meant to fix a broken public education system; linked federal money to state action requiring states to have high standards for all students; evaluation of progress was through standardized testing
  • Homeland Security

    Homeland Security
    After 9/11 occurred, the Department of Homeland Security was established as the newest member of the cabinet with the goal to secure America.
  • "Axis of Evil"

    "Axis of Evil"
    A term coined by President Bush in his 2002 State of the Union address; this "axis" included Iraq, North Korea, and Iran.
  • WMD's

    One of the pretexts for the attack on Iraq; Saddam Hussein had refused to cooperate with UN weapons inspections, a condition of the Iraq's defeat in the Gulf War; although UN inspectors were unable to find evidence of their existence, the US and their British allies launched an invasion of Iraq in 2003, leading to the fall of Baghdad and the end of Saddam's rule.
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Operation Iraqi Freedom
    An operation launched with a combination of US and British armed forces to overrun Iraqi defenses, capture the capital city of Baghdad, and end Hussein's dictatorship. Although most of it was successful, the violence did not end with the defeat of the Iraqi army and the capture of Saddam Hussein.
  • Abu Ghraib Prison

    Abu Ghraib Prison
    Revelations of abuse perpetrated by American soldiers against Iraqi prisoners in this Baghdad prison inflamed anti-American sentiment in the Middle East and beyond, calling into question America's democratic ideals.
  • John Kerry

    John Kerry
    democratic candidate in 2004 election, criticized Bush's tactics on Iraq War
  • Hurricane Katrina

    Hurricane Katrina
    Considered to be the one crisis of the Bush administrations second term and in is inefficiency to deal with the crisis. It destroyed 80% of New Orleans and more than 1300 people died, while the damages were $150 billion.
  • Great Recession

    Great Recession
    officially began in December 2007 and ended in mid-2009, has had long-term lingering effects on unemployment, and was preceded by the largest housing bubble in US history, caused by short term economic thinking, speculation, and irresponsible spending
  • Mitt Romney

    Mitt Romney
    candidate, ran on pro-family stand
  • Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac

    Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac
    two corporate organizations that make house mortgages available to people with modest incomes - when housing bubble burst and people defaulted on housing loans, these two corporations taken over by government
  • John McCain

    John McCain
    Presidential candidate 2008
  • Barack Obama

    Barack Obama
    Forty-forth president of the United States, and first African American elected to that office. A lawyer and community organizer in Chicago, Obama served in the Illinois State Senate before being elected to the U.S. senate in 2004. After a protracted primary election campaign against Senator Hillary Clinton, Obama sealed the Democratic Party's nomination and defeated Senator John McCain on November 4, 2008.
  • Sarah Palin

    Sarah Palin
    Republican vice-presidential candidate with John McCain in the 2008 election, the second woman to run for vice president of a major party and the first Republican. Palin served on the city council and as mayor of her hometown of Wasilla, Alaska from 1996-2002 and then in 2006 was elected governor of the state. Relatively unknown nationally, Palin's social conservatism made her popular among the evangelical wing of the Republican Party, which had been distrustful of McCain.
  • D.C. v Heller

    D.C. v Heller
    United States Supreme Court case heard on December 11, 2000. ... 2008 Court held that the Second Amendment protects an individual right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia, and to use that firearm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self- defense within the home.
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Sotomayor
    Appointed by President Obama in 2009, first Hispanic Supreme Court Justice
  • Affordable Care Act

    Affordable Care Act
    An expansion of Medicaid, most of employers must provide health insurance, have insurance or face surtax, prevents rejection based on pre-existing condition. Also referred to as "Obamacare", signed into law in 2010.
  • Dodd-Frank Act

    Dodd-Frank Act
    The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Pub.L. 111–203, H.R. 4173, commonly referred to as Dodd–Frank) was signed into United States federal law by President Barack Obama on July 21, 2010.
  • Citizens United

    Citizens United
    2010 Supreme Court case.
    Ruled that the government cannot cap campaign donations from corporations.
    Led to unlimited election spending.
  • Arab Spring

    Arab Spring
    series of protests across Middle East and North Africa in 2010
  • Syrian Civil War

    Syrian Civil War
    spill over from Iraq War, been happening since 2011, in response to oppressive leader Bashar al-Assad
  • Debt Ceiling

    Debt Ceiling
    legislative mechanism to limit the amt debt that can be issued by Treasury by limiting money gov can borrow
  • Boston Marathon Bombing

    Boston Marathon Bombing
    series of attacks in Boston for the marathon in 2013 that injured hundreds of runners and killed 3
  • Shelby County v. Holder

    Shelby County v. Holder
    struck down a key provision of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, required that certain states with a history of voter discrimination obtain prior federal approval of any changes in voting laws
  • Same-sex Marriage

    Same-sex Marriage
    The legal right for gay and lesbian couples to marry; it became the most divisive issue in the culture wars of the early 2010s as more and more court rulings affirmed this right in states and municipalities across the United States. In a landmark 2015 decision, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide.