The First Virginia CharterThe British London Company and seperately established Plymouth Company were given charters for different areas of Virgina, however it was the London Company which primarily establihed settlers and dominantly reigned in Virginia.
First Meeting of VA House of BurgessesThe Virgina House of Burgesses was the first bicameral legislature in the colonies, an institutiion which would threaten King James I and give colonists growing ideals about representation and democracy.
The MayflowerA group of 102 people (half were Separatists) travelled on the Mayflower
Captain: Miles Standish (not a Separatist)
Landed in Plymouth Bay, which was far outside their charter specifications
The Mayflower CompactThe Mayflower Compact had 41 signers, and was the first agreement of government.
Norm was town meetings
"Covenant of Grace" (God:people)
"Social Government" (Government: people)
MA Bay ColonyReverend John White helped eager New England settlers to obtain The Massachusetts Company Patent, a land charter which allowed for approximately one hundred settlers to arrive and begin to establish land in the New World.
The Pequot WarsPowerful tribe in the Connecticut River Valley
Set fire to native's homes and shot residents
Tribe basically wiped out
Trade and Navigation ActsColonies used for goods and raw materials
exports > imports
trade = wealth
King Philip's WarMetacom, or as the colonists would call him- King Philip, was one of the most significant Native American rebellions of this era. His first location of attack was Plymouth colony, a destination which would also prove his troop's last attack. After a great victory at Plymouth, with food supplies low, and little battle equipment left, and discouraged by the death of Metacom himself, his troops eventually surrendered.
Queen Anne's WarBritain gained Canadian territories, including Nova Scotia
French were unconnected with the British regime
Britain's naval power was apparent
Great Awakening1720's New Jersey; begun by Frelingheusan (minister)
1730's Jonathan Edwards
1739 George Whitfield, Southern minister
Addition of GeorgiaFounder: James Oglethorpe
Last of 13 colonies
"Buffer colony" between S.C. and F.L.
haven for English debtors
Savannah, GA proved a national port city
King George's WarOne of nine world wars
Cause: War of Austrian Succession
France allied with Spain
New Englanders captured Louisburg (French territory)
French and Indian/ Seven Years WarThsi dispute began in the colonies over the Ohio River Valley and the extent of its jurisdiction. The turning point of the war occurred in 1758 when William Pitt was appointed as head General. While France no longer controlled North America, the British, in extreme debt, began to look to the colonies as means of decreasing their deficit.
NC Regulator MovementThe Reugulator Movement of North Carolina was fought primarily over the conflict of Easterners unfairly taxing Westerners, resulting in non-representation by Eastern officials, which caused a great disunity in North Carolina.
English View of Colonists (1763)Post French and Indian War
Colonists were uneffective in the war
Disliked PA and New England for trading with France
Issues with mercantilism
Colonist's Views (1763)Believed to be self-governing
Began Mid-Western expansion
No longer wanted British troops in colonies
Believed they were the reason for the victorious outcome of the war
The Paxton BoysDuring the bleak December night, more than fifty Paxton Boys massacred a settlement of peaceful Conastoga Native Americans, in an attempt to threaten other tribes from war with the colonies.
Gaspee AffairCaused by abuse of Trade/ Navigation Acts
Colonists burned ship (Gaspee) and injured crew
Trial in England
Jury found no witnesses (imagine)
Colonial courts arrested ship's captain for illegal goods
Tea Act of 1773Attempt to save British East India Co from bankruptcy by allowing a total monopolization of the colonies
levied a three pence tax
put colonial tea merchants/ smugglers in awful financial situation
MA Government ActClosed original assembly
Set up an appointed assembly
Town meetings banned
Committees of Correspondence banned
Intolerable ActsClosed Boston Port
Closed Colonial Assemblies
British means of punishing colonists until the cost of the tea was defrayed
Boston Port ActBritish sent ships to Boston Harbor to enforce the non importation and exportation regulations it had imposed
Battle of Lexington and Concord1,000 British troops
8 killed; 10 wounded
Concord Bridge farmers fired "Shot Heard Around the World"
Second Continental Congress1) Debated the idea of a fourteenth colonie for the Native Americans as means of peace
2) Washington appointed task of Continental Troops Commander
3) Authorized attack upon Canada
Olive Branch PetitionFrom colonies to Britain
Colonial attempts at peace
rejected by the King England declared colonies in a state of rebellion, August, 1775
Declaration of Causes of taking Up ArmsPassed by the Second Continental Congress
Justification of War
Declaration of Independence1) Listed philosophies
2) Listed grievances to the king
3) Declared independence
Battle of Saratoga (NY)Colonial Victory
Led to French alliance
French provided troops, supplies, navy, etc.
Provided England with possibility of a two-front war (uh oh!)
Northern turning point
Battle of Kings MountainOverwhelming colonial victory
On border of North/ South Carolina
Turning Point of the South
General Nathaniel Greene used surpirse tactics
Peace of ParisUS Benefits:
Western boundary: Mississippi River
Colonie's independence recognized
British said they would evacuate NW troops
Land Ordinacne of 1785-Division of Old Northwest (3-5 new states)
-Adoption of New England Township system
Section 16 always reserved for education
George Washington becomes the first President of the U.S.-He was the first president
-Only President to be elected unanimously by the Electoral College
Citizen Genet AffairGenet was a French and tried to recruit US citizens to become members of the French army
He quickly kicked out of the U.S.
Marbury V MadisonSupreme Court Justice- John Marshall
He was a staunch Federalist.
Ruling- Marbury's creation of jobs for circut court judges was unconstitutional.
* Established judicial review
Burr vs. Hamilton (Duel)Hamilton was not particularly interested in fighting, yet did not want to damage his reputation, and so intentionally missed at Burr, while Burr's single shot killed Hamilton.
Chesapeake IncidentChesapeake seized by British (US Ship)
Commander denied British to search ship
British fired on vessel
took: 1 British deserter; 1 African American; 1 US citizen
Result: Trade Embargo 1807
Orders of Council-British legislation requiring ships to go via England before being allowed into the rest of Europe
France then implementsed the Continental System, a set of trade regulations based upon the Milan/ Berlin decrees that allowed France to seize ships of any nation tradin with Britain
Embargo of 1807Put in place by Jefferson
Blocked all trade with Europe
Attempted to put an end to impressment
However, trade continued and the nation was virtually unmoved
Election of 1808James Madison won Presidency
Previous Secretary of State
"Father of the Constitution"
Non Intercourse Act-Lifted embargo from nations except Britain and France
-Opened trade significantly
Erskine Agreement (see following event)
Erskine Agreement-Erskine was the British Prime Minister of the time
-England offered to drop their Orders of Council
-US offered to drop embargo against England
- England decided to keep the Orders of Council
Macon's Bill Number TwoReplaced Non-Intercourse Agreement
Told Britain and France that whichever nation dropped their restrictions first, the U.S. would open trade with that nation and impose an embargo against the remaining nation
UltimatumMadison gavce Britain a six month ultimatum to drop the Orders of Council, however Britain is unresponsive
Adams Onis TreatyAlso known as: Florida Purchase Treaty
Florida sold to the U.S. from Spain for $ 500, 000.000
Set a boundary between Texas and Louisiana
Revolution of 1800Adams- 65 votes
Pickney- 65 votes
Jefferson- 73 votes
Burr- 73 votes
Hamilton turned political tide to favour Jefferson