Karl Capek helped develop the grammatical side of robots, helping his brother come up with the term ‘robot’ and then creating a science fiction play (R.U.R: Rossum’s Universal Robots) that took place in a world where robots did the manual labor for humans but then later rebelled using the human’s as slaves. The play introduces the word robot and made it a popular phrase despite the fact it was his brother that actually coined it.
Artificial Intelligence in the 20th and 21st century
McCulloch and Pitt propose neural-network architectures for intelligence
An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is the robots equivalent of a brain. It is able to store information and recognize patterns along with certain types of data.
Claude Shannon proposes program for a chess-playing robot
Claude Shannon, a man often hailed as the intellectual giant of the digital age, creates an analysis of paying chess. These calculations are then used to create a program that would allow a human to have an intelligent game of chess against a robot.
Alan Turing creates the Turing Test
The Turing Test is a test of artificial intelligence, stating that if the interrogator is talking to two different objects, one an actual person and the other a machine that the interrogator is unable to decide which one is which. No computer to date has actually passed the test.
Isaac Asimov creates 'I, Robot'
The American Writer, Isaac Asimov creates 'I, Robot' a collection of nine science fiction stories that explore the relations between humans and robots. These stories are set in a world where humans and robots are barely discernable. The only thing keeping robots and humans together are three separate laws:
1. A robot may not harm a human.
2.A robot has to follow that orders of any human
3. A robot may protect its own existence
The nine stories explore the limitations of those rules.
1955: Newell, Shaw, and Simon develop "IPL-11"
This language is the first AI language ever used. It allows communication to robots that exhibit AI. The IPL language is now mostly used in file transfer.
Allen Newell developes the first machine that shows signs of Artificial Intelligence, the 'Logic Theorist'
The ‘Logic Theorist’ was able to form hypotheses and then explore possible answers from that Hypothesis to arrive to a conclusion. It used Heuristics to make sure that the ‘branches’ of the questions did not reach a point where the final solution was no longer attainable.
Noam Chomsky developed a set of rules that would allow a robot that follows them to predict the outcome of a sentence
This is very much like when people are able to finish each others sentences except in this case it allows the robot to comprehend what is being said and then remember and store certain details. So if I said ‘My name is Max’ it would be able to tell that my name is Max and would then store that for later use. This is fundamental for an intelligent conversation.
John McCarthy developes 'LISP' computing language
LISP is a family of computer programming languages and is the second oldest computer language. It still exists today as it is effective in creating tree diagrams and managing data storage (as well as having a fully developed syntax).
Sammuel's checkers program beats human players.
Many of the best checkers players of the world are defeated by Sammuel's chess program.
Artificial Intelligence becomes available to the public.
The public are able to purchase machines capable of exhibiting Artificial Intelligence. It is only a matter of time before our lives are surrounded by AI such as mobile phones and computers.
McCarthy founds the 'AI lab'
After moving to Stanford in 1962, McCarthy creates the AI lab for the purpose of furthering the field of Artificial Intelligence.
Simon's bold prediction
Herbert. A Simon predicts that 'by 1985 machines will be capable of doing any work a man can do'.
A robot called 'Shakey' is developed. Shakey is capable of navigating eight blocks and understanding as well as following instructions given in simple english.
Expert systems advance
Expert systems now run on over 1000 rules.
Fingerprinting system developed
Japanese company develops a database for cataloguing data from fingerprinting. It can match up fingerprints of current and previous records.
Personal Computers up to speed
With the new developement of a computer that hosts 386 chips, Personal Computers are now up to speed with the previous super computer, LISP.
LISP McIntosh developed
The Microexplorer is developed, a McIntosh that runs on the LISP computer language.
New LISP language developed
The Apple computer company developes Dylan, a new type of LISP computer language that could revolutionise the LISP language.
Artificial intelligence is a toy
A new range of artificially intelligent toys hits the market. Robots capable of multiple face expressions are available to whoever has enough money to purchase them.
The mechanic explorer
A robot possesing artificial intelligence is sent to Antarctica to gather meteorite samples for the purpose of scientific research.
Roomba is developed, a robot that is able to clean houses due to it's obstable navigation system.
Vehicle driven by AI finishes race course
Stanley, an autonomous Volkswagen Touareg R5 entered by the Stanford Racing Team, won the DARPA Grand Challenge 2005 and a $2M prize by completing the 212.4 km course in just under 7 hours. 23 vehicles competed, and five completed the course.
Our lives today
Today almost every single piece of electronic appliance we use hosts some sore of artificial intelligence in one form or another. Our mobile phones, laptops, home phones and MP3s all contain traces of artificial intelligence.
Surgery revolutionised with AI
A robot is developed that can asess the patients situation and from thet make intelligent decisions about what to do. The robot is capable of identifying areas of trouble (such as a lesion) and the administering proper aid.
Teaching and AI
A new robot is being developed that may even prove to even rival human teachers at certain teaching tasks. It is currently under refinement.
Helping the elderly
A machine is being developed that is able to recognise the moves of an individual and then asess the situation. Should such a robot be developed it may eliminate the need for seniors to be held in nursing homes.
Capable of learning?
Computers have developed in leaps and bounds over the last couple of centuries but are still along way away from being up to the expectations of AI pioneer Alan Newell. The Turning test is still an impossibility for some of the best modern robots. But at the rate that AI is being developed the robot capable of completeing the Turning test may no longer be as far away as we once thought.