Afghanistan's History of Conflict

  • Treaty of Rawalpindi Signed

    Approximately 200 years after the establishment of the Durrani empire in Kandahar and subsequent invasions by foreign forces, the United Kingdom and the Afghan empire signed the Treaty of Rawalpindi during the Third Anglo-Afghan War. Under this treaty, the United Kingdom had to recognize Afghanistan's independence, promise that the British-Indian empire would never extend past the Khyber Pass, and stop British subsidies to Afghanistan. (Wikipedia)
  • King Abdicates, Change of Power

    Amanullah Khan, King of Afghanistan, is forced to abdicate after Amir Habibullah Kalakani led a uprising with the aid of various Pashtoon tribes. Nine months later, Mohammad Nadir Shah takes control of Afghanistan. From Ed Grazda, <i>Afghan Diaries 1992-2000</i>
  • King Nadir Shah Assassinated

    King Nadir Shah is assassinated. His son, Zahir Shah, becomes king and Afghanistan remains a monarchy for the next four decades. (BBC and Wikipedia) BBC Reference
  • US recognize Afghanistan

    The United States of America formally recognizes Afghanistan as a sovereign state. PBS Reference
  • Women's Rights Extended

    Under Mohammad Daoud Khan's reforms, women were given the right to attend universities and enter the workforce. PBS Reference
  • PDPA Holds First Congress

    The Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) holds its first congress. (Wikipedia)
  • Daoud: New Era of Politics

    Under Daoud's rule from 1973 to 1978, new developments arose both domestically and internationally. First, the media became drastically censored. Second, Daoud attempts to distance himself from the Soviet Union and leftist political parties--entities in which he formally had close ties. (Wikipedia)
  • Monarchy Ends

    King Mohammad Zahir Shah's cousin, Mohammad Daoud, seizes power from the King's government in a relatively peaceful coup. This event virtually ends the monarchy. From Ed Grazda, <i>Afghan Diaries 1992-2000</i>
  • Mujahideen Formed

    The Mujahideen movement is formed. Afghan-Web Reference
  • Khalq and Parcham parties come to power

    1978-1979 In a soviet backed coup d'etat, the leftist Khalq and Parcham parties come to power. A series of radical events occur under their rule: detention, the execution of members of perceieved or real opposition groups, communist slogans, the adoption of a red state flag, rash land reforms, and the forcing of rural woman to attend school. Ed Grazda, <i>Afghanistan Diaries 1992-2000</i>
  • Daoud executed, New Rule

    The Afghan Army overthrows and executes Daoud and members of his family. Nur Mohammad Taraki, Secretary General of the PDPA, becomes PRime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. (Wikipedia)
  • CIA Intervenes in Afghanistan

    Jimmy Carter signs an executive order, authorizing the CIA to conduct Covert propaganda operations against the communist regime. Afghan-Web Reference
  • Soviet Forces Sign Treaty

    A treaty is signed, which permits deployment of the Soviet Military at the Afghan Government's request. Afghan-Web Reference
  • Najibullah runs secret police

    Dr. Najibullah is brought from the USSR to run the secret police. Afghan Web
  • Islamist Revolution in Iran, US Ambassador to Afghanistan killed

    The Islamist Revolution ousted the US-backed Shah from Afghanistan's neighbor, Iran. Furthermore, the United States Ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs, was kidnapped and killed by Islamists despite attempts by the Afghan security forces and Soviet advisors to free him. Wikipedia
  • President Hafizullah Amin kills Taraki, difficult to maintain power

    Within the months of July to December 1979, President Hafizullah Amin killed Taraki and proclaimed himself premier. Yet, as a premier, he failed to contain the opposition known as the Mujahideen. Ed Grazda, <i>Afghanistan Diaries 1992-2000</i>
  • Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, US responds

    From December 1979 to 1986, the Soviet Union sends an invasion force into Afghanistan along with Karmel to serve as president. The Mujahideen, now supported by the US and other countries, intensifies its opposition and face brutal Soviet response. Ed Grazda, <i>Afghanistan Diaries 1992-2000</i>
  • Special Forces assassinate Hafizullah Amin

    KGB OSNAZ (Alpha Group) and GRU SPETSNAZ special forces assassinate Hafizullah Amin. Afghan Web
  • Badaber Uprising

    Known as the Badaber Uprising, Prisoners of War at the Badaber refugee camp stage a wide scale revolt against 300 Afghan Mujahideen, Pakistan 11th Army Corps, and 50 Foreign military instructors. (Wikipedia)
  • Dr. Najibullah becomes President

    Dr. Najibullah, former head of the secret police, becomes president. Afghan Web
  • Soviet Union defeated, begins to withdraw

    The Soviet Union is defeated by Afghanistan and begins to withdraw. The Mujahideen continues to fight against Najibullah's regime. Afghan Web
  • Islamic State formed. Rabbani elected President.

    The Mujahideen take Kabul and liberate Afghanistan, forming an Islamic State and the Islamic Jihad Council. They hold elections, resulting with Professor Burhannudin Rabbani as the first elected president under the new state. Afghan Web
  • Taliban formed, Advance rapidly against Rabbani government

    The Taliban is formed. They advance rapidly against the Rabbani government and gain land. Wikipedia: Afghan Civil War (1992-1996)
  • Taliban take control of Herat.

    In September 1995, the Taliban took control of Herat, thereby cutting off the land route connecting the Islamic State of Afghanistan with Iran. The Taliban's innovative use of mobile warfare appeared to indicate that Pakistan had provided vital assistance for the capture of Herat. Wikipedia: Afghan Civil War (1992-1996)
  • Taliban seize Kabul, Rabbini forced to exile and Najibullah executed.

    Afghan's Taliban militia seizes control of Kabul. The Taliban forces President Rabbin and his government out of Kabul and executes Najibullah. Massoud is then forced to retreat to the North, where he begins to obtain military assistance from Russia as well as Iran. The Northern Alliance is reconstituted. Wikipedia: Afghan Civil War (1992-1996)
    Afghan Web
  • Taliban take control of Mazar-e Sharif, US launches missiles

    The Taliban take control of Mazar-e Sharif. Within the same month, the US launches cruise missiles into Afghanistan's Khost region in order to destroy the terrorist training camps funded by Osama Bin Laden/Al Qaeda. Afghan Web
  • Massoud is killed

    Ahmad Shah Massoud is killed. (Wikipedia)
  • The Taliban and Al Qaeda attack the WTC and Pentagon

    The Taliban and Al Qaeda attack the World Trade Center towers in New York, and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. Wikipedia: Afghan Civil War (1992-1996)
  • Deposed Shah returns to Afghanistan

    Desposed Shah, 87 years old, returns to Afghanistan for the first time after fleeing the country 29 years ago. Access My Library
  • Grand Assembly elects Hamid Karzai as President

    Grand Assembly elected Hamid Karzai as President of the transitional government. Karzai picks members of his government until elections are held in 2004. Wikipedia: Afghan Civil War (1992-1996)
  • NATO arrives in Afghanistan

    NATO takes control of security and the Peacekeeping Force in Kabul.
  • NATO expands peacekeeping operations and refocuses on elections

    New York Times</a>NATO expands peacekeeping operations throughout Afghanistan and refocuses on safeguardin the elections. <a href='' >
  • Afghanistan adopts new constitution, now three branch government

    Afghanistan adopts a new constitution. The country is now a republic with three branches of Government (Executive, Legislative, and Judiciary). Afghan Web
  • Donors pledge nearly $13 billion fund, Afghanistan says not enough

    International donors pledge $4.4 billion in new aid to Afghanistan for the next year and $8.2 billion over three years. Afghanistan says it will need $30 billion over the next seven years to properly develop. CNN
  • First election held, Hamid Karzai elected.

    Afghanistan holds its first election. Hamid Karzai defeats Yuni Qanuni. Afghan Web
  • First Parliament Election held despite Taliban Threats

    The Independent</a>Afghanistan holds its first Parliament Election while ignoring threats from the Taliban. USA Today
  • Violence continues, Countries promise intervention

    Throughout 2006, violence and suicide bombings increase in Afghanistan. Senior British Military Commander, Gen. David Richards says the country is close to anarchy. Also, Pakistani President Musharraf promises to help Afghanistan combat the worsening Taliban insurgency which operates from Pakistan. The Guardian
  • US approves $70 billion for wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

    US approves $70 billion for wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Washington Post
  • Violence and Civilian Deaths escalate

    Reports worsen:The violence in Afghanistan is four times more intense than the previous year. The use of roadside bombs has doubled. Also, aid and reconstruction workers are targeted, setting back development efforts. Terrorism in Iraq and Afghanistan alone account for half of the terrorism worldwide. International Herald TribuneThe Christian Science Monitor
  • Taliban resurfaces, Request for more NATO troops to Afghanistan

    Canada asks NATO to send more troops to Southern Afghanistan. The death toll climbs for Americans as Taliban insurgents resurface. The Seattle TimesReuters