Prison Architecture

  • First purpose built jain in Britain

  • Reformation as religious conversion, Hanway

    "Suffering was no longer physical pain...but was a spiritual ordeal provoked for...prisoner's own good"
  • Dutch Prison, John Howard Quote

    "so quiet and most of them so clean" ..."hardly believe" it to be a prison
  • Increase in crime rate & number of prisoners, debate over punishment

    Existence of House of Correction or Bridewell - Institutional reform as well as punishment.
    1. To learn industrial habits
    2. Sentence to hard labour : i. Suffering
    ii. Reform
  • Quotes

    "nothing but a real reform can save use from ruin as a nation" "We take little care of the bodies, and less of the souls of our prisoners"
  • Architecture to promote goals of confinement. Howard

  • Quakers - reformation as only form of punishment & conviction that goal can only be achieved by exercise of personal influence

    Panopticon Principle, Jeremy Bentham "Prisoners are ruled by kindness ...chains...therefore unnecessary" Gurney
  • National Campaign lead to creating of Quakers - attention to parliamentary investigations & legislation

  • Creation of SIPD (the Society for the Improvement of Prison) influencing architectural plans for construction prisons

  • Idea of confinement too lenient needs to be more deterrent

    Auburn System (silent system)
    Relied heavily on physical inflictions, ie whipping
  • Act of 1823 enforce uniformity of prisons throughout the country. Robert Peel at Home Office

    "afraid it is better than real life on the other side of the wall" "should be contemplated with horror...not excited by the ancient filth, disease...but by calm, well-regulated, well watched austerity" Felcons
  • Separate System

    1. Isolation in cells - commute will own conscience
    2. Architecture - deprived of glimpse from outside world
  • Construction of national prison at Pentonville, triumph of separate system

    Became model for construction of local prisons
  • Carharvon Committee re-examine question of discipline in local prisons

  • The Prison Act of 1865

  • Convict System - Compromised 9 convict Prisons

  • Koepel was built

    "if they are constructing that prison in this grardiose manner, some maybe even many - people may be tempted, after their daily work, to try to secure a place in that glorious resort at the expensce of the state"
  • Home Office committee concluded that there should be sentencing changes - Diminished prison numbers & crime rate

  • Two stages of sentencing established by Prevention of Crime Act of 1908

  • Preventive Detention

    "An exceptional means of protecting society form the worst class of professional criminals" Churchill
  • Building was condemned by the Jacobs Committee

  • New prison in Amsterdam & Maastricht, most enlightened ideas of 1960s

  • OMA were asked to "study" the possible renovation of a Panopticon Prison

  • Opening of Guantanamo Bay Prison

  • Obama Announcement of Guantanamo Bay Prison Closure

    Obama's Speech
    the detention facilities at Guantanamo to be closed down as soon as possible : 22 January, 2009. The US would continue to fight terror, he said, but maintain American values while do so. He said that Guantanamo prison %u201Cwill be closed no later than one year from now%u201D