20th Century History

By mmaybl
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Europeans can’t meddle in Latin American affairsRoosevelt’s Corollary: US can, will and should intervene in Latin American affairs
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    Early Victorian Era in England

    Social unrestCommunication advancements
  • Communist Manifesto

    Marx and Engles believed that the proletariat (having witnessed the lower classes conquer wealthier classes) has the ability and should take the bourgeoisie out of power.
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    Mid-Victorian Era in England

    Prosperous time2nd reform bill of 1867: gives the vote to the working class which doubled the voting populace
  • First Indian Revolt

    Mini war called: The Indian Mutiny (by the British) or The First War of Independence (by the Indians)
    Indians against the British East India Company
  • The Berlin Conference

    Sought to regulate the competition between the powers by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of territorial claims.
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    Cuban Revolution

    (Spanish) Government vs JuntosAmerica helps fight off the Spanish govt for Cuba, but does not annex Cuba, allows it to stay independent
  • Spanish-American War

    Peace treaty was ratified by Spain and US, Philippines became the US’s first colonyFilipinos now fight against US instead of Spain for independence.IN THE END US ANNEXED PHILIPPINES
  • Open Door Policy

    Everyone can freely trade with China
  • Tsar Nicholas (Romanov family)

    Absolute monarch, divine right unwilling to compromise.Russia is not industrial, massive amount of land, inflation, famine, bad economic conditions, population boom and bad farming tools.
  • Chinese Revolts

    Revolts began due to a transitioning world with new spheres of influence since China had an imperial rule based on divine Right
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    Edwardian Era in England

    Literary rates increase, production of newspaper increaseSignificant divide between the working and wealthy classAdvances in Quantum physics
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    Ruso-Japanese War

    Russia joined the war to help the Tsar maintain power over military (and support of the people)- tries to grab land in this war
    Russia loses and the opposite of what they hoped for happened
  • Bloody Sunday

    End Ruso-Japanes WarUniversal SuffrageBetter working conditionsThe petitioners are killed by the Tsar, stirs up more unrest
  • Fall of the Last Chinese Emperor

    New Cultural Movement emerges based on desire to change during political turmoil – seeking out western ideology because of U.S. influence This concept strays away from Confucianism (a religion based on tradition that believes society as to be structured with reverence and hierarchy to be good and that members must know their place in society and act in that role) and onto western equilization – just as Sun Yat Sen did
  • KMT

    Sun Yat-Sen establishes Chinese Republic, becomes president and founds the KMT
    The Three People's Prinicples: 1) Nationalism 2) Democracy and 3) Equilization
    Leads to guided democracy
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    Woodrow Wilson

    US President
    Tried to keep the US out of WWI until absolutely necessary
    14 points after WWI
  • Russia Enters WWI

    For 3 years on behalf of Serbia who is fighting Austria-Hungry.Conditions worsen in Russia
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    World War I

    Starts with the assassignation of Frans Ferdinand (an Austria-Hungarian leader) by a bosnian. The Central Alliance (Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungry) gets upset by the assassignation, go to war vs. The Triple Entante (Russia, France, and England)
  • Frans Ferdinand is Assassignated

    Frans Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungry is assassignated by a Bosnian. Allies of Austria-Hungry [The Central Allies (Italy, Germany, A-H)] come to the defense of Austria-Hungry. WWI has begun
  • Feburary Revolution

    Revolt of the people against the TsarTsar abdicatesKerensky and the provisional government take power
  • October Revolution

    Revolt against the provisional governmentLenin and the Bolsheviks take power.Lenin promised “bread, peace, and land”
  • Treaty of Brest Litovsk

    Officially ends Russia’s involvement in WWI1/3 land lost and ½ industrial capability lostLenin sacrifices “bread and land” for “peace”
  • Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points

    Made to prevent another WW after WWI
    No secret alliancesFree tradeRestore balance of powerRestore BelgiumCreate League of Nations
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    Russian Civil War

    White Army- Kulaks, anti-BolsheviksRed Army- Bolsheviks, socialistsGreen Army- Want own independence in other providencesWar communism- Lenin enforces this during the warMass inflationNear universal nationalizationMonopoly on agricultureForced labor
  • US 18th Amendment

    Prohibits sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholEventually repealed in 1933
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    American Red Scare

    Americans are afraid of the Bolshevik model (communism) taking rule in AmericaFear of radicalism
  • The Treaty of Versailles

    End of WWI
    Open Door Policy
  • May 4th Movement

    protest to government about weak response to Treaty of Versailles Westernism failsInfluence of Northern Neighbor (Russia) sparks CCP
  • US 19th Amendment

    National American women suffrage
  • US Economic Inequality

    During WWI labor boomed since their was less competition for jobsWhen the soldiers returned jobs and the industry turned back around
  • Gandhi

    Nonviolent protester for Indian independence
  • CCP

    Chinese Communist Party ConferenceMao Zedong becomes leader
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    Warren G. Harding

    US President
    Died in office
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    Calvin Coolidge

    US President
    Lassiez Faire Econ Policy
    Neutral Foriegn Policy
  • Lenin dies

    Trotsky vs. Stalin:Trotsky: intellectual, international MarxistStalin: Great organizer of peopleStalin exiles Trotsky to Mexico where he is killedStalin takes power in Russia
  • Death of Sun Yat Sen

    Chiang takes over KMT Nationalist Party because he controlled the army previously
  • Balfour Declaration

    British say they will support Jews going to Israel as long as they do not interfere with anyone already there
  • Great Mississippi Flood

    Mississippi River overflowed banks in 7 statesWater destroyed farms, crops, and agriculture along the Mississippi RiverThe economy is connected (agriculture and industry) so when one is hurt, the other gets hurt
  • US Monetary Policy and Stock Market Crash

    The government controlled the economy at the timeThe federal reserve was in control of deflation and inflationFunded the US troopsThe monetary policy was that the money was based on the gold standardThe Stock Market CrashBasically the market was based on speculative spending, so when it didn’t pay out, people didn’t have the money they planned on getting.People started to panic and a lot of people started selling their stocks, as the value of them were instable
  • Gandhi and Nehru

    India National congress allies with Gandhi and Nehru (leaders of congress)
    Series of non violent protests
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    Herbert Hoover

    US President
    Elected because he was the Secretary of Commerce during the Great Flood, and was associated with the 1920's a prosperous time in the US
    Didn't handle Great Depression well "hoovervilles"
  • Midwest Dustbowl

    Drought led to dry land in the plains, which led to massive dust storms, which destroyed crops.Black Sunday 1935 was the worst dust stormSame as Mississippi Flood: hurt the agricultural economy, and since the economies are connected, indirectly hurt industry.
  • The Smoot-Hawley Tariff

    Protectionism is when a government sets a tax on all foreign imported goods, to encourage Americans to buy American-made productsOther countries put tariffs on American items in retaliation for the tariff on their goods
  • Start of the Chinese Tension

    Mao teams up with Chaing to conquer the Northern provinces
    While simultaneously they both want to destroy each other
    Soviets have issues with this team since they want to team up with Mao
    Soviets: build up separate armies and want Mao to team with them, only wants to redistribute wealth to proletariat (urban working class)
    Mao: wants to redistribute to everyone, proletariat is agricultural working class – peasant based movement and teams up with Chiang instead..Mao gets destroyed
  • Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany

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    The New Deal

    March 9th 1933 FDR calls for a national banking “holiday”
    FDR’s solution to all of the problemsRecovery, Relief, and Reform
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    Fulgencio Baptista in Cuba

    Right wing of spectrumElected president (military power)Goes to U.S. because he wants to be reelected
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    Franklin Delano Roosevelt

    US President
    New Deal
  • The Long March

    Mao retreats because he is ill prepared – 8000 men left when Chiang wins and defeats himThen Mao reunites the Communist Party under Maoist Principles Meanwhile, the U.S. cares who gets China because we’re based on containment and China would be a huge expansion to communism – therefore we support Chiang
  • British appeasement of India

    British appease India because they are getting too hard to keep under controlBritain says they will no longer control Indian affairs but will maintain control over military and foreign affiairs Once WWII occurs Britain is economically devastated and can no longer afford so many colonies
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    The Holocaust

    Genocide on non-Aryan peoples
    People with best genes should pair with other superiors, create master Aryan raceWork camp, people worked to death
  • Cash and Carry

    US allows other countries to come get war supplies for cash
  • Hitler Rampage...

    Germany takes Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Denmark, NorwayMussolini militarizes Italy
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  • Hitler Invades Poland

    Sparks WWII
    Before he does so he signs the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact, since Russia was the only country powerful enough to stop himBritain and France declare war on Germany (Sept 3)
  • Battle of Britain

    Germany fights Britain in the sky 3 month battle- Hitler calls his men offTurn of WWII
  • Tripartite Pact "The Axis"

    Germany and Italy, who are aligned with Japan, declare war on the US
  • Lend and Lease

    US gives other countries war supplies, for credit to-be paid back
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor

    US navy base in Hawaii is attacked by Kamikaze pilots
    US gets pulled into WWII after being attacked by Japan (December 8, 1941)
  • Battle of Midway

    US vs JapanTurning point of the war in the pacific- US pushes back Japan
  • The Wannasee Conference

    “The Final Solution”- Hitler declares the murder of all European Jews
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    Siege of Stalingrad

    Germany attacks Russia6 months later Hitler retreats due to a brutal winterTurning point, Germany starts to contract instead of expand
  • D-Day

    US invade Normandy, takes back France from Germany, marches towards BerlinAllies take beaches in Northern France- push and liberate Paris
  • Battle of The Bulge

    Germany tries to split the allies forces in their campaign to BerlinLast German offensiveGermany fails, Allies win the war
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    The Cold War

    Post WWII tension between the two superpowers, US and Russia.
  • Yalta Conference

    Allies agree:
    Divide GermanyBring Nazi war criminals to trial Set up Polish provisional government of national unityHelp free Europe/set up self-governing countries/allow free elections in Baltic StatesReparations
  • Arab League

    Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Yemen, Iraq, and Lebanon
    All countries that are against Jews in Israel
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    Harry S. Truman

    US President
  • Potsdam Conference

    Stalin, Atlee, Truman, Charles de GaulleWar is over
  • Potsdam Conference

    4 zones set up in GermanyBerlin is divided Each ally power seize reparations in their zone Truman tells Stalin about bomb (Even though he already knew)West = US and East = Russia
  • Bombing of Hiroshima

    US nukes Hiroshima
  • Bombing of Nagasaki

    US nukes Nagasaki
  • Split of Korea

    Atomic bombs were dropped on Japan who controls Korea U.S. took over Pacific territories besides Korea38th parallel divides Korea
    NK: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (Communist – China and USSR)SK: Republic of Korea (democratic – US)
  • Stalin's Speech

    USSR is proof that communism works Allies wouldn’t have won without Russia’s help Says he will develop new weapons (atomic bomb)New 5 year plansMust expand communism to other European countries
  • The Long Telegram

    Telegram sent by Kennen a American diplomat in Russia
    The Necessity for ContainmentRussia is internally weaker then they let on so when there is no progress (as a result of containment) they will want change
  • Belgium in Congo

    Belgium asserts paternalism (over-arching authority) in Congo, further pushes Congo desire for independence
  • The Iron Curtain Speech

    Made by Churchill
    Wants to prevent war and tyranny as much as possibleWants to form alliance between U.S. and Britain Have an international armed force and welcome Russia into the UNAn “iron curtain” has been drawn and it is polarizing the world (Stalin’s sphere of influence is expanding across E. Europe – minus Czechoslovakia)
  • The Truman Doctrine

    Greece and Turkey are extremely vulnerable to communist forces in E. Europe and once Britain informed U.S. that they could no longer financially aid Greece the U.S. decides to give 400 million dollars to these unstable countriesBelieved that it was the U.S. duty to support free nations resisting outside pressures
  • Indian Independence

    Issue with religious divide (Islam vs Hindu)Indian National Congress are unsuccessful at uniting the two religions Indian Muslim League founded which promoted Muslim political interests Gandhi splits with National Congress because they resort to violence and give up on unification
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    The Marshall Plan

    US puts out 13 billion dollars to all European countries who are free to take some if they needShows how economically stable the U.S. was with their capitalist system making communism and Russia look bad
  • Pakistan is formed

    Muslims take Pakistan to leave Hindus in India
  • Formation of the OAS: The Organization of the American States

    Goal: not bonding for political independence but for economic independence US has Monroe Doctrine (no one can meddle in our hemisphere) Clause in OAS (Article 15) that states we won’t intervene in Latin American nation and the U.S. doesn’t agree but approves anyways
  • The Berlin Blockade

    Stalin cut off all allies access to Berlin.
    Great Britain and the US flew in materials and goods (chocolate bombers) which won not only Berlin support but also their hearts – showed them that they could have self determination
    Stalin eventually gives up again looking bad
  • The Formation of NATO

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    This was formed by the U.S. and its allies due to the Berlin Blockade and the soviet capture of Czechoslovakia. It was a mutual defense treaty based on the fact that stopping Stalin was not plausible – Europe wanted military aid from the U.S. now.
  • Chinese Civil War

    Mao and Chiang fight in a Civil War – Mao wins and China falls to communism
  • Kwame Nkrumah and CCP

    Convention People's Party of Ghana demand independence now from British
  • Chinese=Communists

    Mao now needs to help stabilize the government since the world is so polarized and china is no longer neutral They chose USSR
  • NSC-68

    Violations of agreements at Yalta and Potsdam, the Berlin Blockade, China going Communist, and Russia getting atomic bomb
  • Korean Sour Little War

    54 thousand people die
    “Sour Little War” because no gain from it
  • Guatemala Conflict

    We launch a military campaign (rise in the CIA) who trains small group of Guatemalans to overthrow Arbenz – forces Arbenz to resign because there is so much fightingWe engage in a propaganda war – radio is primarily used to broadcast into Guatemala since theirs is censored
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    Independence now for Egypt!

    Gamal Nasser pushes to get an Egypt for the Egyptians
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    Cuban Civil War

    Fidel Castro (communist) ends up taking power in Cuba
  • Gamal Nasser Takes Power in Egypt

    Takes power until 1970
  • Arbenz Replace in Guatemala

    Replaced by Castillo Armas, a right wing dictator, who is on the US side; arrest communists, let US seem great
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    Algerian Movement for Independence from France

    High percentage of Algerians fight for France in WWII – fighting for freedom but they don’t have it
  • Suez Canal

    • Everyone but Egypt have part of this canal as route to India even though its not European territory - Nasser decides to take it back and nationalize it- In response, British have Israeli soldiers move into canal to give British a “reason” to go and “save” these soldiers and make the Egyptians look bad
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    Battle of Algiers

    Algerians fight for Independence from France
  • Chinese Industrialization

    China increases industry work, becomes a pure communist
  • Ghanaian Indpendence

    Ghana becomes first sub-Saharan nation to gain independence from colonial powerNkrumah then spreads anti-colonial movements and resistance through “Pan Africanism”
  • Congo Gains Independence

    WWII influences Congo because they fought for freedom but they don’t have it themselves.Similar to Asian and African countries Congo is valuable because it has lots of natural resources so Belgium resists granting independence and promises to “improve quality of life”
  • Ghanaian Preventative Detention Act

    Kwame Nkrumah passes this act, begins to look like a horrible dictator to his people, wants to be president for life
  • Rwandan Power Vacuum

    King of Rwanda dies (who is Tutsi) and a power vacuum occurs so Belgians start helping Hutu take over the Tutsi by making them flee
  • Algeria Gains Independence

    Charles De Gaulle, the leader of France, sets Algeria on a path to independence because of self determination influence and the Pieds Noir (French people in Algeria) flee to France
  • Formation of the Democratic Republic of The Congo

    Lumumba Left wing prime ministerAble to unite and continues with independence NOW (anti western and anti colonial rhetoric is influential in promoting the independence from Belgium)
  • Hutus Take Power in Rwanda

    Hutu holds election – no more Tutsi nobility but Hutus continue attacking them to “cleanse” monarchy from the nation with Belgian support
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    Bay of Pigs Fiasco/ Operation Mongoose

    US is very unsuccesful in their effor to kill Castro. US is so scared of him because he presents a threat in being a communist so close to US
  • Hutus in Power in Rwanda

    Belgium leaves and Hutu stay in power while Tutsi continue to leave but start to gather forces for defense
  • Cuban Missle Crisis

    US finds out that Russia is supplying Cuba with nuclear weapons
    "13 Days"- JFK authorizes a "quarantine" to rid Cuba of the nukes. Russia (Khrushchev) eventually complies, US later take back our nukes out of Turkey
  • Overthrow of Nkrumah in Ghana

  • Six Day War (Israel vs Egypt)

    Against soviet advice, Nasser looks to expandGighting colonial powers and decide he wants to get rid of Israel too
    Israeli’s launch preemptive strike and a successful air attack which results in ISRAEL gaining lots of land
  • Yom Kippur War

    Egypt gets kicked out of Arab League fro recognizing Israel’s existenceAnwar Sadat leader in Egypt – killed for being to lenient then succeeded by Hoshi Mubarak (who is fairly Moderate)
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    Rwandan War

    War between RPF [Rwandan Patriotic Front: many Tutsi go to Uganda and form an army to take back their country try to come back in 1990 and set up power sharing set up] and FAR [Rwandan Armed Forces: Hutu army equipped and trained by French (willing to defend them because they are the legitimate rulers since they are majority)]
  • Rwandan Genocide

    President Habyarima supports cease fire and peace (he is a Hutu) but Hutu extremists shoot down his airplane and killed him and blamed Tutsi to get rid of the moderate message and gives Hutus a chance to attack- over the next 3 months genocide kills 1 million people (non-extreme Hutus)
  • Return of the Congo

    US finally able to help overthrow Mobutu in Zaire and change name back to Republic of the Congo