Chapter 17 Timeline

By kgoeden
  • May 22, 1543

    Nicolaus Copernicus publishes On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

    The book "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres", was about Copernicus' heliocentric conception of the universe. He believed his theory was more accurate than the Ptolemaic system.
  • Galileo Galilei publishes Starry Messenger

    Because of all the attention Galileo received from "The Starry Messenger", the Catholic Church grew suspicious of him. His publication gave Europeans insight to a new view of the universe rather than the works of Copernicus and Kepler.
  • Rene Descartes writes Discourse on Method

    This was Descartes' most famous work. The importance of his own mind was emphasized and he asserted that he would accept only the things that his reason said were true.
  • Isaac Newton publishes Principia

    The name "Principia" is a shortened form of its Latin name. Newton wrote about the three laws of motion that govern the planetary bodies and objects on Earth.
  • John Locke writes Essay Concerning Human Understanding

    Locke discussed that every human being was born with a tabula rasa, which is a blank mind. His ideas were that people are molded by the experiences that came through their senses from the surrounding world.
  • The first daily newspaper printed in London

    These newspapers were somewhat inexpensive and were even provided for free in numerous coffeehouses.
  • Reign of Frederick William

    He doubled the size of the army. He instituted economic and financial reforms and centralized his administration. His reign ended in the year 1740.
  • Hanovers take British crown

    The monarch chose ministers who were responsible for the Crown. The Hanoverians was a new dynasty that was established when the last Stuart died without an heir. The first king was George I who didn't even speak English.
  • Reign of Frederick II

    He was also known as Frederick the Great and is said to have been one of the best educated and most cultured monarchs of the time. He enlarged the Prussian army by recruiting the nobility into civil service. He also kept a sharp eye on bureaucracy until his death in 1786.
  • Maria Theresa inherits the Austrian throne

    The Austrain emperor Charles VI died without someone to take his place. Because he didn't have a male heir, his daughter, Maria Theresa, succeded him. She allied with Great Britain and rebuilt her army.
  • War of Austrian Succession

    Ending in 1748, this war was fought in the three parts of the world. Prussia seized Silesia, France took Madras, and the British captured Louisbourg. Once seven years had gone by, all parties were exhausted and agreed to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
  • Montesque writes The Spirit of the Laws

    This was a study of governments. Using the scientific method, Montesquieu tried to find the natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of human beings.
  • The years in which Diderot published the Encyclopedia

    This was published between the years 1751-1772 in order to "change the general way of thinking." It later became a weapon against the old French society.
  • Rousseau writes Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind

    Rousseau arged that people had adopted laws and government in order to preserve their private property. While doing so, they had become enslaved by government.
  • Beginning and end of the Seven Years’ War

    Ending in 1763, this war enlarged the British Empire with the addition of Canada and India. William Pitt the Elder was the spokesman and head of the cabinet in charge of the land expansion.
  • Rousseau writes The Social Contract

    A social contract was when the whole society agrees to be governed by its general will. It was believed that the general will was best for the entire community. As a result, liberty is achieved.
  • Catherine the Great rules Russia

    Catherine II ruled Russia until 1796. Under her rule, Russia grew southward to the Black Sea by defeating the Turks. Westward, Russia gained 50% of Poland's territory.
  • Voltaire writes Treatise on Toleration

    Voltaire reinforces that governments should remember "all men are brothers under God." This author was against religious tolerance and highly critized Christianity.
  • On Crimes and Punishments written by Cesare Beccaria

    This author was viewed as having a new approach to justice. In the book he debated that punishments should not be excessively brutal. He was against capital punishment and didn't believe that it ultimately stopped other from committing crimes.
  • Stamp Act imposed on colonies

    Imposed by Parliament, this act required certain printed materials like legal documents and newspapers, to carry a stamp showing that a tax had been paid to Britain.
  • First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia

    This was where members insisted that colonists "take up arms and organize militias." It was organized to counteract British actions.
  • Adam Smith writes The Wealth of Nations

    Best represented laissez-faire statements, this book made writer Adam Smith famous. He believed that the state shouldn't get involved in economic issues.
  • Treaty of Paris signed

    This formally ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and America.The treaty document was signed at the Hotel d'York by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay and David Hartley.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft writes A Vindication of the rights of Woman

    This brought to light two problems with the views of numerous Enlightenment thinkers. She expressed that the power of men over woman was wrong. Women should have equal rights in education, the economy, and political life.