chapter 17 timeline

  • May 22, 1543

    Nicolaus Copernicus

    Nicolaus Copernicus publishes On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. Thought that his helipcentric, or sun-centered, conception of the universe offered a more accurate explanation than did the Ptolemaic system.
  • Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei publishes Starry Messenger. First European to make regular obervations of the heavens using a telescope.
  • Rene Descartes

    Rene Descartes writes Discourse on Method. This method emphasized the importance of his own mind. Began writing about the doubt and uncertainty that seemed to be everywhere in the confusion of the 17th century.
  • Isaac Newton

    Isaac Newton publishes Principia. Newton defined the three laws of motion that govern the planetary bodies, as well as objects on Earth.
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    Reign of Frederick William I

    Maderussia a major European power in the 18th century. Also doubled the army size, army was a major conern for him.
  • John Locke

    John Locke writes Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Argued that every person was born with a tabula rasa, or blank mind.
  • he first daily newspaper printed in London

    Newspapers were relatively cheap and were provided free in many coffeehouses.
  • Hanovers take British crown

    Was established when the last Stuart ruler, Queen anne, died without an heir.
  • Maria Theresa inherits the Austrian throne

    Wroked to centralize and strengthen the state.
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    Reign of Frederick II

    He was one of the best educated and most cultured monarchs of the time. Well versed in Enlightment ideas.
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    War of Austrian Succession

    Problems began Fredrick the Great of Prussia violated the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Selica.
  • Montesquieu

    Publishes The Spirit of the Laws. In this Montesquieu used the scientific method to try to find the natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of human beings.
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    The years in which Diderot published the Encyclopedia

    This became a weapon against the Old French society. Many of its articles attacked religious superstition and supported religious toleration.
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    Beginning and end of the Seven Years’ War

    Involved all the Euopean powers and caused 900,000 deaths. It envolved European and colonial theaters.
  • Rousseau writes Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind

    Rousseau argued that people had adopted laws and government in order to preserve their private property.
  • Rousseau writes The Social Contract

    Through this an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.
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    Catherine the Great rules Russia

    She was an intelligent women who was familiar with the works of the philosophes and seemed to favor enlightened reforms.
  • voltaire writes Treatise on Toleration

    In this he reminded governments that "all men are brothers under God"
  • On Crimes and Punishments written by Cesare Beccaria

    Beccaria argued that punishments should not exercises in brutality. he opposed capital punishment.
  • Stamp Act imposed on colonies

    This act required certain printed materials, such as legal documents and newspapers, to carry a stamp showing that a tax had been paid to Britain.
  • first Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia

    Members urged colonists to "take up arms and organize militias."
  • Adam Smith writes The Wealth of Nations

    Smith believed that the state should not interfere in economic matters.
  • Treaty of Paris signed

    recognized the independence of the American colonies. Also granted the Americans control of the western territory.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft writes A Vindication of the rights of Woman

    Wolllstonecraft identified two problems withe the views of many Enlightenment thinkers. Same people who argued with women must argue with men the same.