Approaching omaha (1)

World War II

  • Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany

    Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany
    1919: after WWI, Hitler was a jobless soldier drifting around germany, so he joined Natioinal Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis). Proved to be powerful public speaker and organizer --> party's leader.
  • Benito Mussolini's fascist government in Italy

    Benito Mussolini's fascist government in Italy
    Stressed nationalism and placed interests of the state above those of the individuals. Power rests with a single strong leader and a small group of devoted party members.
  • Mein Kampf

    Mein Kampf
    Hitler set forth the basic beliefs of Nazism that became plan of action for Nazi Party. Based on extreme nationalism. Hitler dreamed of uniting all German-speaking people in a great German empire.
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria

    Japanese invasion of Manchuria
    Military leaders trying to take control of imperial gov Japan. Ignored Japanese official protests. Militarists launched surprise attack and seized control of Manchuria (Chinese province). Within several months, Japnese troops controlled entire province
  • Storm Troopers

    Storm Troopers
    6 million Germans were unemployed because of war debts in Great Depression --> joined Hitler's private army "storm troopers."
  • Third Reich

    Third Reich
    Hitler was appointed chancellor, and quickly dismantled Germany's democratic Weimar Republic. Replaced it with the Third Reich.
  • Hitler's military build-up in Germany

    Hitler's military build-up in Germany
    After pulling Germany out of League of Nations in 1933, Hitler began military buildup in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia

    Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia
    1935: tens of thousands of Italian soldiers ready to advance on Ethiopia. Leage reacted with "brave talk". Invasion began and League's respsonse was ineffective economic boycott. By May 1936, Ethiopia had fallen.
  • Hitler invades the Rhineland

    Hitler invades the Rhineland
    Sent troops into Rhineland, a German region bordering France and Belgium that was demilitarized as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. League did not stop him.
  • Francisco Franco

    Francisco Franco
    group of Spanish army officers led by Franco rebelled against Spanish republic. Revolts broke out all over Spain and Spanish Civil War began.
  • Hitler's Anschluss

    Hitler's Anschluss
    German troops marched into Austria unopposed. Germany announced that its union with Austria was complete. No other country did anything
  • Munich Agreement

    Munich Agreement
    Turned Sudenttenland over to Germany without violence. Signed by France and Britain
  • Joseph Stalin's totalitarian government in the Soviet Union

    Joseph Stalin's totalitarian government in the Soviet Union
    Stalin took control of Soviet Union after Lenin died in 1924. Made agricultural and industrial growth economic goals. Abolished privately owned farms and replaced them with collectives. 1928: outlined first of several "five-year plans" in which economic activity = under state management. Eliminated anyone who threatened his power. By 1939, Stalin established totalitarian gov that exerted complete control over citizens.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis

    Rome-Berlin Axis
    Hitler and Mussolini backed Franco's forces with troops, weapons, tanks, fighter planes. Forged close relationship between German and Italian dictators --> rome-Berlin Axis
  • Nonaggression Pact

    Nonaggression Pact
    Fascist Germany and communist Russia agreed to never attack each other. Also devided Poland between them.
  • Blitzkrieg

    German airforce rained bombs on military bases, airfields, railroads, cities over Poland. Newest military strategy. Military technology - fast tanks and more powerful aircraft to take enemy by surprise and quickly crush with overwhelming force.
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany

    Britain and France declare war on Germany
    2 days after invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war
  • Phony war

    Phony war
    Several months after fall of Poland, troops waited for each other to fight, but nothing happened.
  • Hitler's invasion of Denmark and Norway

    Hitler's invasion of Denmark and Norway
    Hitler launched surprise invasion to "protect those countries' freedom and independence", but really, he planned to build bases along coasts to strike at GB.
  • Hitler's invasion of the Netherlands

    Hitler's invasion of the Netherlands
    Turned against Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg and were overrun by end of May. End of phony war
  • Germany and Italy's invasion of France

    Germany and Italy's invasion of France
    Italy entered war on side of Germany and invaded France from south as Germans closed in on Paris from north. Hitler handed French officers terms of surrender. Germany occupied northern France and Nazi-controlled gov controlled S France.
  • Marshal Philippe Petain

    Marshal Philippe Petain
    headed the Nazi-controlled puppet govermnet that controlled Vichy in Southern France
  • The Battle of Britain

    The Battle of Britain
    Germans assembled invasion fleet along French coast. Also launched an air war with Luftwaffe runs over Britain. Goal = gain total control of skies by destroying Britain's Royal Air Force. RAF fought back brilliantly.
  • Pearl Harbor Attack

    Pearl Harbor Attack
    Roosevelt received decoded message that instructed Japan's peace envoy to reject all American peace proposals. Japanese dive-bomber swooped low over Pearl Harbor, largest U.S. Naval base in Pacific. Killed 2,403 Americans. Wounded 1,178. Sunk/damaged 21 ships. More than 300 aircraft damaged or destroyed.
  • Battle of the Atlantic

    Battle of the Atlantic
    Germans sank 87 ships off Atlantic shore. Then 681 Allied ships total destroyed. Allies responded by organizing cargo ships into convoys. Found and destroyed U-Boats. U.S. launched crash shipbuilding program. By 1943, 140 Liberty ships were produced each month. Tide of Battle of Atlantic turned to U.S. happy :)
  • U.S. convoy system

    U.S. convoy system
    Groups of ships traveling together for mutual protection. Destroyers equipped with sonar for detecting submarines underwater. Accompanied by airplanes that used radar to spot U-boats on ocean's surface.
  • Battle of Stalingrad

    Battle of Stalingrad
    Luftwaffe prepared way with nightly bombing raids over city. Germans controlled what was left of the city. Freezing temps --> German surrendered. Soviets lost 1,100,000 soldiers. Soviet victory marked turning point in war.
  • Operation Torch

    Operation Torch
    Stalin pressured Britain and America to open a "second front" in W. Europe. Invasion of Axis-controlled North Africa commanded by Dwight D. Eisenhower. After heavy fighting, last of the Afrika Korps surrendered in 1943.
  • Unconditional surrender

    Unconditional surrender
    Enemy nations accept whatever terms of peace the Allies dictated.
  • Bloody Anzio

    Bloody Anzio
    Hitler was determined to stop Allies in Italy rather than fight on Germany soil. Left 25,000 Allied and 300,000 Axis casulties. German armies continued to put up strong resistance. Effor to free Italy did not succeed until 1945, Germany almost collapse.
  • D-Day

    First day of Allied invasion. Three divisions parachuted down behind German lines. Largest land-sea-air operation in army history. Germany retaliation was brutal.
  • The Battle of the Bulge

    The Battle of the Bulge
    German tank divisions broke through American defenses. Tanks drove 60 miles into Allied territory, creating a bulge in lines that gave desperate last-ditch offensive its name. Captured 120 American GIs. Germans had been pushed back. Germans lost 120,000 troops.
  • Death of Hitler

    Death of Hitler
    Blame Jews for starting war and generals for losing it. Killed himself.
  • V-E Day

    V-E Day
    Eisenhower accepted unconditional surrender of Third Reich. Allies celebrated Victory in Europe Day.
  • Harry S. Truman

    Harry S. Truman
    Vice president bacame nation's president the night Roosevelt died of stroke.