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War and Diplomacy in the United States

  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    As the French and the British built up their colonial possessions in North America, tensions began to rise as the territory in the Ohio River Valley and in northern Canada became disputed. After failing to reach a compromise in 1750, armed conflict erupted in 1754. After a series of initial failures, a mix of British regulars and colonial militia fought off the French and took possession of all of France's North American territory.
  • Treaty of Paris (1763)

    Treaty of Paris (1763)
    This is the treaty that ended the French and Indian War. In this treaty Britain received Canada and all French territory east of the Mississippi river, except for New Orleans and Louisiana. The British also gained Florida from Spain. This was a massive territorial expansion for the colonists, but unfortunately, the aftermath of this war bankrupted England and led to a heavy increase in taxation in the colonies.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    Fed up with taxation without representation and further British encroachments to their freedoms, the colonists in the 13 colonies revolted. At the beginning, things looked very bleak for the colonies, but a series of victories that led to France joining the war turned the tide of the Revolution. The war ended as British General Lord Cornwallis surrendered his troops at Yorktown, Virginia in 1781.
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)

    Treaty of Paris (1783)
    The treaty that ended the American Revoltion. This treaty established British recognition of American independence, set the borders of the new nation as the Mississippi River in the west, the Atlantic Ocean in the east, Canada to the north, and Florida in the south. America also gained fishing rights in Newfoundland, and was asked by the British to maintain the property rights of loyalists.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    As war broke out between Britain and France, America tried to remain neutral, but British impressment of American sailors and other trade interferences, a young and eager nation entered the fight and declared war on the British. Feeling strong after their victory over the British in the Revolution, had no idea what was in store. The British burned Washington DC to the ground and fought the Americans to a stale mate. The war was a defensive fight, but they survived heonslaught once again.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    The treaty signed in Belgium that ended the war of 1812. There was no exchange of territory, but the British gave up their claims to the Northwest Territory. Following the end of the war, American manufacturing gained a very large boost due to the British blockade preventing foreign trade. Americans also felt a sense of national pride after having fought off the world's strongest army twice.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    Starting with the US annexation of the Republic of Texas, tensions between Mexico and the United States were high. Following Mexican refusal to negotiate a compromise, President James K Polk sent American troops into the disputed area. When hostilities erupted, Polk pushed Congress for a war declaration, which he got despite much protest from abolitionists and Whigs. The United States won almost every battle and eventually ended up taking control of Mexico City and effectively ended the war.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This treaty was negotiated by Nicholas Trist. Trist had failed twice to negotiate a treaty and was recalled by President James K Polk, but Trist defied this command. Trist stayed and was finally successful in negotiating a treaty. In this treaty, Mecxico gave up vast amounts of land known as the Mexican Cession, which included present-day California, Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado. In return, America paid Mexico 15 million dollars.
  • American Civil War

    American Civil War
    A number of different factors caused the American Civil War. Some say it was over states rights, others say it was a fight over slavery, but regardless of the causes, 11 states eventually seceded. War broke out on April 12th when Confederate troops began firing on the Union-held Fort Sumter. The next 4 years were filled with a war between the states with most of the fighing occuring in Confederate territory. The Union eventually won due to more manpower and better supplies.
  • Robert E Lee Surrenders

    Robert E Lee Surrenders
    Surrounded and defeated by the forces of Ulysses S Grant, General Robert E Lee of the Confederacy surrendered his army at the Appomattox Courthouse in Virgina. This formally ended the American Civil War, however there were several small skirmishes that happened afterward. In a gesture of good will, General Grant allowed General Lee to keep his sword and his sword, expressing optimism that the Confederacy would be reassimilated into the Union.
  • Spanish-American War

    Spanish-American War
    As America entered a period of expanionism, it set its sights on the Spanish controlled Islands of Cuba and the Hispaniola. Americans were enraged at the way the Spanish were treating the poor Cubans wanted to go to war, but President William McKinley was hesitant. However with the sinking of the USS Maine, a declaration of war followed quickly. The war was a very quick one resulting in a very easy Spanish defeat.
  • Treaty of Paris (1898)

    Treaty of Paris (1898)
    The treatyy was negotiated in Paris between representatives of the United States and Spain. The American diplomats were facing a hostile European environment, so negotiations were tense. In this treaty, Spain ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States and gave up its claim to Cuba. The Phillipines became a disputed topic since the US had taken the islands after the armistice, but eventually, Spain gave up its claim in exchange for 20 million dollars.
  • World War I

    World War I
    When Europe broke out into all out warfare following the assassination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand by a Serbian organization, America vowed to remain neutral. America had a very profitable trade with both sides, perhaps more with the Allies. Eventually, Germany set up a blockade of British ports using submarines and sinking American ships. Unrestricted submarine warfare led to the American people demanding war with Germany and her allies. American involvement put a quick end to the war.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    Soon after America entered the war, The Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire surrendered and ended the war. The Allied Powers met in Versailles France to negotiate a punishment for Germany. Germany was forced to give up large amounts of territory, drastically reduce its army, and pay exorbitant sums of money in reparations. This treaty bankrupted Germany and led to a great resentment of the rest of Europe that Adolf Hitler used to rised to power in the next decade.
  • World War II

    World War II
    Eurpoe once again broke out into total war in 1939, and once more, the United States vowed to remain neutral. But on December 7, 1941, a Japanese surprise bombing attack devastated the US Navy and killed thousands of people. The next day, Congress declared war on Japan and then Germany. Fighting Japan in the Pacific and Germany in Europe, this war became the largest war in the country's history. Once again, American involvement would prove decisive in ending the war.
  • Japan Surrenders, World War II Ends

    Japan Surrenders, World War II Ends
    Having already defeated Germany and invaded Berlin, the only thing that remained was the war with Japan. In order to put a decisive end to the war, The United States dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Herhoshima, killing hundreds of thousands. When the Japanese refused to surrender, another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, again killing hundreds of thousands. Six days later, Japan announced its surrender and officially ended World War II.
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    The first engagement of the Cold War, the United States supported democratic South Korea from the invading armies of communist North Korea, supported by the USSR and China. The United States entered the war behind its pledge to defend democratic countries that were being threatened. The war ended up being a victory, as South Korea successfully repelled the invasion, though it has become known as the "Forgotten War".
  • Cease-fire Armistice

    Cease-fire Armistice
    After both sides fought eachother to a stale mate, and after threats of nuclear action from Dwight Eisenhower, both sides agreed to negotiate a peace treaty. The treaty gave a small amount of territory to South Korea and demilitarized the border territory between the two countries. This ended the first of several Cold War engagements for the United States.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    Following an invasion of democratic South Vietnam by communist North Vietnam, the United States once again intervened in support of the South Vietnamese, continuing its policy of defeding democracy. This war started a lot like the Korean War, but proved to be far more difficult. The war dragged on for more than 20 years. It proved to be a very unpopular war that led to mass protests back in the United States.
  • Vietnam War Ends

    Vietnam War Ends
    Caving to national pressure and faced with a losing battle, President Richard Nixon signed the Paris Peace Accords on January 27,1973. With the signing of this treaty, America ended its offensive operations in Northern Vietnam. With about all US troops pulled out of Vietnam, Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1974, ending all United States aid to the South Vietnamese. This led to a disheartened South Vietnam and an emboldened North Vietnam. Next year, South Vietnam's capital fell.
  • War in Afghanistan

    War in Afghanistan
    On September 11, 2001, a militant group of Islamic extremists staged an attack on United States soil, killing over 3,000 people. Soon afterward, Washington learned that members of this militant group, Al Qaeda, were being harbored and protected in Afghanistan by the Taliban government. When the Taliban refused to give the Al Qaeda leaders to the US, America sent in a large military force to remove the Talian government and locate and kill any members of Al Qaeda living in Afghanistan.
  • Iraq War

    Iraq War
    The causes of the Iraq War are largely unknown, and still debated to this day. President George W. Bush indicated that they had substanial evidence that Iraq was building nuclear weapons and needed to be stopped. Others believe that it was a war to put an end to the reign of ruthless dictator Saddam Hussein. Saddam had been committing ruthless acts against his own people for many years and was greatly hated by his people. And still others believe that America went to war over oil.