Beau (3)

Time Line: Translation through time

  • 46 BCE

    Marcus Tullius Cicero

    Marcus Tullius Cicero
    In his work De optimo genere oratorum he outlines his approach to translation as avoiding the then normal practice of word-for-word translation, aiming instead to reproduce the general style and force of the language (literal and free translation).
  • 395

    St. Jerome

    St. Jerome
    St. Jerome was the first to note differences between two versions of a bible (greek and hebrew). He explained that he had translated not word-for-word but sense-for-sense therefore setting out the dichotomy that would dominate much of the study of translation until the 20th century
  • 1250

    Abbasid Period of translation

    Abbasid Period of translation
    A period of intense translation activity centred in Baghdad, encompassing a range of languages and topics but centred on the translation into Arabic of greek scientific and philosophical material.
  • 1399

    Leonardo Bruni

    Leonardo Bruni
    Italian humanist who translated philosophical works of the classical greek and latin authors, with a high ececclesiastical position. Bruni placed strong emphasis on retaining the style of the original author, which he saw he saw as an amalgam of the order and rhythm of the words and the polish and elegance of the original. The only correct way to translate.
  • 1522

    Martín Luther

    Martín Luther
    German priest and theologian who was a leading figure of the protestant reformation in europe. He translated first the new testament (1522) and later the old testament (1534) nto east central german. To the accusation that he had altered the holy scriptures in his translations, he countered by saying that he was translating into pure clear german and rejected the word-for-word translation strategy since it would be unable to convey the same meaning as the ST.
  • 1540

    Étienne Dolet

    Étienne Dolet
    In his 1540 manuscript la manière de bien traduire d’une langue en aultre, he set five principles of the process of translation in order of importance. Condemned for adding rien du tout (nothing t all) in a passage about what existed after death
  • John Dryden

    John Dryden
    In his translation of Ovid’s Epistles in 1680, reduces translation in three categories. 1.-Metaphrase (word-for-word, literal translation)
    2.- Paraphrase (sense-for-sense translation)
    3.- Imitation literal translation
  • Alexander Tytler

    Alexander Tytler
    Alexander tytler in his treaty essay on The Principles of Translation constitutes one of the first comprehensive and systematic studies of translation with three general laws.
  • Friedrich Schleiermacher

    Friedrich Schleiermacher
    Schleiermacher in his seminal lecture On the different methods of translating (1813) distinguished 2 types of translation to move the writer to the reader (dolmetscher) or to move the reader to the writer (Ubersetzer).
  • Yán Fù

    Yán Fù
    Chinese thinker and translator who proposes three translation principles. Xìn (fidelity), dá (fluency) and ya (elegance)
  • Machine Translation

    Machine Translation
    Translation automatically generated by computer software.
  • Vinay and Darbelnet

    Vinay and Darbelnet
    Jean paul vinay and Jean darbelnet in their stylistique comparée du français et de l’anglais described two different translation strategies and procedures. Direct and oblique translation.
  • Roman Jakobson

    Roman Jakobson
    In his paper On linguistic Aspect of Translation describes three categories of translation: Intralingual, Interlingual, and Intersemiotic.
  • Eugene NIda

    Eugene NIda
    Linguist and translator
    Nida described two types of equivalence in translation: formal and dynamic equivalence. For nida, the success of a translation depend above all on achieving an equivalent effect
  • John C, Catford

    John C, Catford
    In his book a linguistic Theory of Translation applies advances in linguistic to translation. Distinguishes between formal correspondence and textual equivalence in translation.
  • James S. Holmes

    James S. Holmes
    Scholar who named and defined the field of translation studies as a distinctive discipline he put a framework of what translation studies should cover, comprising two branches, pure and applied.
  • Gideon Toury

    Gideon Toury
    Gideon Toury Israeli scholar and founder of the branch of empirical descriptive translation studies.
  • Susan Bassnett

    Susan Bassnett
    Professor who founded the Centre for Translation and Comparative Cultural Studies at the University of Warwick, Uk
  • Audiovisual Translation

    Audiovisual Translation
    Dubbing, voice-over and subtitling are the most common modalities adopted in audiovisual translation.
  • Computer-assisted translation tools

    Computer-assisted translation tools
    CAT tools a term used to refer to different software applications used by professional translators to assist translation and localization.