Tracing Back Today's Emphasis for Multicultural Education in Schools

By dpumper
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    Colonial America

    British begin settling in America. They "start to establish schools and religious institutions to maintain their cultural traditions" (Spring, p. 11). According to Spring (2011) the "British colonialists [at this time are already] setting the stage for the development of the public schools as an institution to create a national culture and instill public morality" (p. 11).
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    Individuals from Africa were taken and brought to America unwillingly to work as slaves on plantations (Spring, p. 15). Slavery will last until 1865. It is important to understand that the slaves came from "different tribal groups and cultural backgrounds, spoke different languages and dialects" (Grant, p. 38) The early colonists and leaders of our nation felt that they were superior to slaves. Over time, slaves began to "resisit [unfair treatment] through conspiracies, and rebellion"(Grant, 39)
  • Naturalization Act

    United States government authorized that only Whites are considered to be citizens. (Spring, p. 52)
  • Noah Webster

    Noah Webster
    Noah Webster writes a book. Its goal to to "unify a multicultural society" (Spring, p. 52). Image retrieved July 16, 2011 from,
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    Taking of Native American Land

    Leaders of our nation are interested in taking away land from the Native American population. They believe that "education is the key to a peaceful way" to acheive this (Spring, p. 52).
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    Black Pioneer Period

    Second and third generation slaves become "empowered" and begin to resist the norm of society (Grant, p. 41).
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    Irish Catholic Immigration

    Due to the potato famine in Europe, many Irish individuals flee to America for a better life. They begin to conflict with the already established Anglo-Saxon Protestants when they arrive due to opposing religious beliefs. (Spring, p. 52).
  • Civilization Fund Act

    The Anglo-Saxon culture begins to impose their culture on the Native Americans. They want to assimilate the Native Americans to be more like them because they feel that they are the superior race. (Spring, p. 52).
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    German Immigration

    Large number of Germans leave for America because of "unemployment and civil unrest." Retrieved July 16, 2011 from,
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    Jewish Immigration from Central Europe

    Jewish immigrants from Central Europe flee to America (Grant, p. 131).
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    Industrial Revolution

    The United States became an "industrialized" with factories and machines to produce goods. Retrieved July 16, 2011 from,
  • Horace Mann

    Horace Mann
    Horace Mann "becomes secretary of the Massachusetts board of education in 1836" (Spring, p. 107). According to Spring (2011) "Horace Mann led the common school in the 1830s and 1840s, emphasizing the goal of reducing class warfare by providing through schools equal opportunity to compete in the labor market" (p. 454). Mann "hoped to create a common school and political culture to stabilize the nation" (Spring, p. 454).
  • New York City Opens 7 Free Schools for African Americans

  • California Gold Rush--Large Chinese Immigration

    California Gold Rush--Large Chinese Immigration
    The California Gold Rush prompts a large number of Chinese immigrants to flee to America. Retrieved July 3, 2011 from, Image retrieved July 16, 2011 from,
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    Italian Immigration

    Large number of Italians leave Europe for a better life in America. They were experiencing economic and political hardships in Italy. Retrieved July 16, 2011 from,
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    Lifespan of Jane Adams

    Jane Adams was an advocate for "women's rights and civic responsibility." Retrieved July 15, 2011 from
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    American Civil War

    The country is divided between the northern states (Union) and the southern states (Confederates) over slavery, rights, and expansion. Retrieved July 13, 2011 from
  • Abolition of Slavery--13th Amendment

    The 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constution abolishes slavery. This is enacted under Abraham Lincoln's presidency. Retrieved July 11, 2011 from the National Archives and Records Administration
  • 14th Amendment

    This amendment to the Constitution "grants citizenship to all persons born in the United States and guarantees equal protection under the law." Retrieved July 13, 2011 from,
  • Alabama Starts Segregated School System

  • Transcontinental Railroad is Completed

    Transcontinental Railroad is Completed
    The Transcontinental Railroad is finally completed. It was build by thousands of immigrant laborers. The railroad connected the east and west coasts of the United States. Retrieved July 16, 2011 from Image retrieved July 16, 2011, from
  • Fifteenth Amendment

    This amendment states that "all male adults are given the right to vote." Retrieved July 13, 2011 from,
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    Slovenian Immigration

    Large number of Slovenians enter the United States. They left seeking employment in America. Retrieved July 16, 2011 from
  • Jewish Immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe

    Large influx of Jewish immigrants enter America from Eastern and Southern Europe for America (Grant, p. 131).
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    Polish Immigrants

    Wave of Polish immigrants enter the United States seeking work and a better life. Retrieved July 16, 2011 from,
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Federal law restricted Chinese immigrants from entering the country. According to the National Archives and Records Administration (2011) "for the first time, Federal law proscribed entry of an ethnic working group on the premise that it endangered the good order of certain localities." Retrieved July 13, 2011, from,
  • John Carroll University is Founded

    John Carroll University is Founded
    John Carroll University (then St. Ignatious College) is founded in 1886 influenced by the Jesuit order. It originated as an all-male school and eventually became co-ed. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from Image retrieved July 16, 2011 from
  • Plessy v. Ferguson Court Case

    This court case "ruled that 'separate but equal' segregated facilities on public transportation within states are constitutional." Retrieved July 13, 2011 from,
  • John Dewey--Progressive Thinking

    John Dewey--Progressive Thinking
    Dewey "explained the new social functions of the school resulting from global migration, industrialization, and urbanization," and "argued that education must provide a 'means for bringing people and their ideas and beliefs together, in such ways as will lessen friction and instability, and introduce deeper sympathy and wider understanding'" (Spring, p. 200). Image retrieved July 16, 2011 from,
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    Japanese Immigration

    Influx of Japanese enter the United States seeking work. They became laborers and farmers on the west coast. Retrieved July 16, 2011 from,
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    Hungarian Immigration

    Large number of Hungarian immigrants enter the United States seeking a better life and employment. Retrieved July 16, 2011 from
  • NAACP is Founded

    NAACP stands for the "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People." Retrieved on July 13, 2011 from,
  • Literacy Test for Immigrants

    U.S. Congress passed a law for immigrants to take a literacy test (Grant, p. 6).
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    World War I

    America gets involved in World War I. At home there is a hatred towards Germans and German Americans. Retrieved July 3, 2011 from
  • U.S. Army Alpha and Beta Examinations

    According to Spring (2011) these "examinations administered during World War I contributed the belief in the superior intelligence of northern Europeans" (p. 407).
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    Push for Intercultural Education

    In America, "educators wrote about and trained others in intercultural education and ethnic studies" because they felt by educating individuals, society would become more "tolerant and accepting" and we would become a nation full of "unity and social control" (Gollnick & Chinn, p. 27).
  • Nineteenth Amendement

    Women are granted the right to vote. Retrieved July 14, 2011 from,
  • Native Americans gain U.S. Citizenship

    Native Americans gain U.S. Citizenship (Grant, p. 227).
  • 1924 Immigration Act

    This act "established annual quotas for immigration from individual countries based on the percentage of each national group in the total U.S. population in 1920." (Spring, p. 408) According to Spring (2011) the "purpose of the legislation was to limit immigration of nonwhite populations" (p. 408).
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    The Great Depression

  • Hocutt v. North Carolina Court Case

    The "NAACP challenge fails to desegregate higher education in North Carolina." Retrieved July 13, 2011 from,
  • Grandfather is born (dad's side)

    My grandfather is born in Nemacolin, PA. His family moves to the Cleveland area when he is around 10 years old. He meets my grandmother in Cleveland. They get married in 1956. Together they move to Alabama for a few years because my grandfather will serve in the armed forces. They then move back up to the Cleveland area to live in Parma Heights and then Seven Hills around 1966. They make a final move to Independence in 1995.
  • Grandmother is born (dad's side)

    My grandmother (dad's side) is born in Cleveland, Ohio in Slovak Village.
  • NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund

    This is established in 1939. It "aims to use the courts to fight discrimination and segregation." Retrieved July 13, 2011 from,
  • Alston v. School Board of the City of Norfolk

    In this case, the "federal court declares that African American teachers cannot be denied equal pay." Retrieved July 13, 2011 from,
  • Grandfather is born (mom's side)

    Grandfather (mom's side) is born in Cleveland, OH. He grew up in a Polish neighborhood. He ends up meeting my grandmother in Cleveland while working on a neighbor's house. They got married in 1962 and moved to Parma, OH where they still reside.
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    World War II

    America becomes involved in World War II. After the events of Pearl Harbor, there is a hatred towards Japanese and Japanese Americans. Retrieved on July 3, 2011 from,
  • Grandmother is born (mom's side)

    My grandmother (mom's side) is born in Cleveland, OH. She grew up in an Italian neighborhood.
  • United Nations is Founded

    (Spring, p. 386)
  • 1946 U.S. Supreme Court Case--Mendez et al. vs Westminister School District of Orange County

    According to Spring (2011) the decision ruled that "Mexicans were not Indians as claimed under the 1935 California law," and "the judge argued that the only possible argument for segregation was the special educational needs of Mexican American children learning English" (p. 401).
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    The Cold War

    After WWII ended, there was still fear and anger felt towards the communist Soviet Union (Spring, p. 366-371). This would continue until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.
  • Arab Palestinian Immigration

    Israel occupies Jerusalem, and in turn, they exile Arab Palestinians. A large number leave for America (Grant, p. 191-192).
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    This was put together by the United Nations and "declared 'everyone has the right to education" (Spring, p. 386).
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    This Supreme Court case ruled that "segregation in public schools was unconstitutional." Retrieved July 13, 2011 from,
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    Civil Rights Movement

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    Vietnam War

    The reason for U.S. entrance upon the Vietnam War was because of the "'domino theory,' which held that if one Southeast Asian country fell to communism, many would follow." There were feelings of anti-war raging at home through marches and demonstrations. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from
  • UN Convention against Discrimination in Education

    According to Spring (2011) the convention "stated that people should not be deprived of an education or limited to an inferior education" (p. 386). It further went on to "define educational discrimination as 'any distinction, exclusion, limitation, or preference based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national or social origin, and economic condition or birth'" (Spring, p. 386).
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    Multicultural Movement

    According to Spring (2011) "leaders such as James Banks, Christine Sleeter, and Carl Grant were concerned with empowering oppressed people by integrating the history and culturel of dominated groups into public school curricula and textbooks" (p. 408). He further explains that "they wanted to reduce prejudice, elminate sexism, and equalize educational opportunities" (Spring, p. 408).
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    Kennedy Presidency

    Kennedy was a large supporter of the Civil Rights Movement. He was assassinated. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from
  • CORE is Founded

    CORE stands for the "Congress on Racial Equality" (Spring, p. 415).
  • Civil Rights Act

    The "Civil Rights Act is signed into law and requires equal access to public places, facilities, and accommodations, and outlawed discrimination in employment." Retrieved July 15, 2011 from,
    Spring (2011) points out that this federal act "extended in the areas of voting rights, public accomodations, education, and employment" (p. 391).
  • Textbook Companies put on Trial

    Because of the push for civil rights, many "textbooks were put on trail for their racial images and their potential to shape student thought" (Spring, p. 415). Textbooks often "neglected African American history," and "if it were discussed in textbooks, an unrealistic view was given" (Spring, p. 415). Textbook companies also failed to "portray minority groups in their images" (Spring, p. 418).
  • White Rioting in Cleveland, Ohio

    Riots break out because the communities do not want to "integrate." Retrieved July 15, 2011, from
  • 1965 Immigration Act

    According to Spring (2011) this act "eliminated the blantantly racist and ethnocentric aspects of the 1924 Immigration Act" (p. 407). Because of this act, "immigration rapidly increased and by 1980 the top five sources of immigration were from Mexico, Vietnam, the Philippines, Korea, and China/Taiwan" (Spring, p. 408).
  • Watts Riots in Los Angeles, California

    Riots break out in LA. They are "an indication of frustrations of inner-city African Americans with the rate of progress toward equality." Retrieved July 15, 2011 from,
  • My father is born

    My father is born in Parma, OH. He will grow up in Seven Hills and meet my mother. The two of them will move to Parma in 1987 and then to Independence in 1996 with their family.
  • Bilingual Education Act (Elementary & Secondary Education Act)

    This was passed in 1968. It funded "bilingual programs" (Spring, p. 395)
  • My mother is born

    My mother is born in Parma, OH and will grow up there. Once married, she will move to another home in Parma and then to Independence.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated

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    Nixon Presidency

    During this time "Native Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans" were demanding "inclusion of their histories and cultures into the school curriculum and desegregation of schools" (Spring, p. 430). In contrast, the Republicans wanted to "end bilingual and multicultural education" (Spring, p. 430).
  • 1974 U.S. Supreme Court decision--Lau v. Nichols

    According to Spring (2011), "the decision guaranteed equal educational opportunity to non-English-speaking students by requiring public schools to provide special assistance to help these students learn English so they could participate equally in the educational process" (p. 398).
  • Educational Equity Act

    According to Spring (2011) this act "authorized the Office of Education to prepare 'non-sexist curricula and non-discriminatory vocational and career counseling, sports education and other programs designed to achieve equity for all students regardless of sex'" (p. 413).
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    Push Against Multicultural Education

    According to Spring (2011) during this time, "there was a sharp reaction against multicultural education and ethnocentric education advocated by dominated groups" (p. 410). He goes on to point out that "protectors of Anglo-American culture, such as Arthur Schlesinger, argued that students should be united around a set of core values derived from white Anglo-American Protestant traditions" (Spring, p. 410).
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    Reagan Presidency

    During his presidency, Reagan put together a report entitled "A Nation at Risk," and in it, he expressed that he "wanted public schools in America to improve the nation's ability to compete in world markets by educating a globally competitive workforce" (Spring, p. 433). In order to achieve this, Reagan wanted to "reform curriculum" (Spring, p. 434). The divide between cultures in America at the time was increasing too. He enacted federal support for "bilingual education" (Spring, p. 433).
  • I am born.

    I was born in Parma, Ohio.
  • 1989 Convention of the Rights of the Child

    According to Spring (2011), this law "protects the freedom of thought of children without specifying how it will be achieved in schools" (p. 415). He further expresses that "Article 14 of the Convention asserts, 'State Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion'" (Spring, p. 415).
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    George H.W. Bush Presidency

    Promoted "the contribution of public schools to the economy and business" (Spring, p. 435).
  • My first day of preschool.

    I attended preschool at the age of 4. The children in my preschool class were predominantly Causcasian.
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    Clinton Presidency

    Passed the "Goals 2000 Educate America Act" that "linked education to the needs of big business by emphasizing the importance of educating workers for competition in international trade" (Spring, p. 435).
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    Public School Education Starts

    Attended half-day Kindergarten, 1st Grade, and 2nd Grade at Dag Hammarsjold Elementary School, a suburban public school in the Parma school district. My classes were predominantly made up of Caucasian children from with lower to middle class socioeconomic statuses. From what I can recall, there was one child of African American descent and two children of Indian descent in my class.
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    Primary School

    Attended 3rd and 4th grade at Independence Primary School, a suburban public school in the city of Independence. My classes were predominantly made up of Caucasian children from the middle class.
  • Clinton--Race Program to Promote Dialogue

    President Clinton starts a program "promote a national dialogue on controversial issues surrounding race," and calls it the" President's Initiative on Race," Retrieved July 15, 2011 from,
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    Middle School

    Attended Independence Middle School for grades 5 through at 8, a suburban public school in the city of Indpendence. My classes were predominantly made up of Caucasian children from the middle class.
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    George W. Bush Presidency--No Child Left Behind is Enacted

    According to Spring (2011), NCLB "favored a monolingual and monocultural society as opposed to a multilingual and pluralistic society" (p. 445).
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    High School

    Attended Independence High School, a suburban public school in the city of Independence. The school consisted of 400 students in grades 9-12. My classes were predominantly made up of Caucasian children (ranging in ethnicities from Italian, Polish, German, Slovenian, Russian, Croatian, and Irish) from the middle class. There were 3 students that were African American descent and 2 students that were of Middle Eastern background. I graduated with 90 students total in my class.
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    Attended John Carroll University for my undergrad in Early Childhood Education. JCU is a private school located in University Heights. The courses I took reflected the Jesuit ideal of men and women for others. They opened my eyes to social justice and how individuals can make a difference in the world. My courses pushed for multicultural education.
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    Obama Presidency

    The first African American president of the United States of America is appointed. There is conflict about "accountability and standardized testing" and "who should control public schools" (Spring, p. 432). Spring (2011) points out that the "Democratic party today is associated with multicultural education, bilingual education, instruction in family planning, and ending poverty through universal preschool education and equal education opportunity" (p. 426).
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    I enter the workforce as a teacher at Laurel School

    Hired to work as an Assistant Kindergarten Teacher at Laurel School, an all girls private school in Shaker Heights. There is a push at Laurel to become more inclusive and multiculturally aware in terms of the school's atmosphere, instruction, and feelings of the students, parents, faculty, and staff members. They are currently conducting a comprehensive study called AIM to see how they can do a better job at inclusivitity & multiculturalism in their building. The school promotes service learning
  • Graduate School

    Graduate School
    Started Graduate School at John Carroll University seeking a M.Ed. as a part of the Professional Reading Teacher Program. Starting to reflect on my own education. Realizing the debate over multicultural education and how it links back to the beginning of our nation's history. (Image taken from Google Images)