Title IX

  • 1972

    Congress passes Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act, which bars discrimination on the basis of sex in all public undergraduate schools and in most private and public graduate and vocational schools that receive public money.
  • 1975

    The Department of Health, Education and Welfare creates legislation that lays out regulations for Title IX. Among them is the Javits Amendment, which makes Title IX applicable to intercollegiate athletics.
  • 1979

    The Northwest Women's Law Center forces compliance of Title IX with a successful sex-discrimination lawsuit against Washington State University.
  • 1980

    The Office of Civil Rights is given oversight of Title IX.
  • 1984

    In Grove City College vs. Bell, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that Title IX applies only to programs financed by federal funds.
  • 1988

    The Civil Rights Restoration Act is passed by Congress, directing that Title IX applies to all operations of a recipient of federal funds. It turns back the Grove City decision.
  • 1989

    The state of Washington passes the requirements of Title IX with the Gender Equity Bill.
  • 1991

    In Cohen vs. Brown University, the U.S. Court of Appeals rules that Brown must reinstate women's gymnastics. This case is now the primary legal precedent for all Title IX litigation.
  • 1997

    Stephen Neal, the 1996 NCAA heavyweight wrestling champ from Cal State-Bakersfield, sues the university for trying to eliminate wrestling. A federal judge blocks the school from disbanding the program. The case is still pending.
  • 1998

    U.S. District Court Judge Ernest Torres approves a plan for Brown University to comply with Title IX, the final issues in its famous lawsuit regarding athletic opportunity for women. Brown will create a varsity women's water polo team and will finance four other women's varsity teams for at least three years. In addition, the university will agree to have the percentage of women athletes remain within 3.5 percent of the university's female population.
  • 2002

    Renamed Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act in honor of its principal author.