The Struggle for the American Curriculum

  • Period: to

    Curriculum Ferment in the 1890s

  • Period: to

    Mental discipline theory prevalent

  • Christian Wolff

    Christian Wolff
    German psychologist in 1700’s – introduced idea of “faculties”
  • Yale faculty report of 1828

    Yale faculty report of 1828
    “the discipline and the furniture of the mind”
  • Monitorial method

    Monitorial method
  • William Harvey Wells creates grade level curriculum

    William Harvey Wells creates grade level curriculum
    William Harvey Wells, the superintendent of Chicago schools, creates curriculum divided into subjects and grade levels
  • Herbert Spencer

    Herbert Spencer
    "Spreads the message of Social Darwinism" through his works in Popular Science Monthly and his lecture tours. p. 21
  • Ward's Dynamic Sociology

    Ward's Dynamic Sociology
  • "Mind-as-a-Muscle" metaphor

    "Mind-as-a-Muscle" metaphor
    The "mind-as-a-muscle" metaphor leads to a system of "monotonous drill, harsh discipline and mindless verbatim recitations." (p.5)
  • Changing role of Schooling

    Social factorsi. Growth in popular journalism 1. Newspapers 2. Magazinesii. Railroads 1. Industry created standardized time zones 2. Track gauge standardized (made nationwide travel easy) 3. 125,000 miles of railroad by 1889 – connected big cities and small townsiii. Population boom 1. U.S. population doubled in last 40 years of 1800’s (included 14 million immigrants)
  • Center of Education shifts

    From teacher centered to a focus on a curriculum
  • Mental discipline begins to collapse

    Mental discipline begins to collapse
    Many reasons are attributed to the failing of mental discipline
    - "failure to survive the test of empirical verification"
    - brought about by changes in the "social order"
    (p.6)
  • Edward A. Ross

    Edward A. Ross
    Writes for the American Journal of Sociology
    -He completed his editingof that work and in 1901, it was published in book form
    -Reveals Ross to have some kind of "intellectual schizophrenia"
    -Identified with the blonds of the west and admired their individualism
    -Saw society on the "edge of a precipise"
    -Saw his book as the weapons that society needs to protect itself
    -Most effective of these weapons: Education
    -schools=instrument of scoial control
  • Decline in the influence of the family

    Decline in the influence of the family
    Dewey: this means that the school should build stronger connections between home and school Ross: school can instill habits of obedience better than the home can
    -welcomed the opportunity to pick people that will influence children
  • Committee of Ten Appointed

    Committee of Ten Appointed
    Committee originally appointed to decide on college entrance requirements
  • Charles W. Eliot

    Charles W. Eliot
    -Appointed head of the National Education Association's Committee of Ten
    -humanist
    -also a mental disciplinarian
    -He thought that "any subject, so long as it were capable of being studied over a sustained period, was potentially a disciplinary subject"
    (p.10)
  • Joseph Mayer Rice surveyed elementary schools in 36 cities in 1892

  • Committee of Ten Report

    Committee of Ten Report
    c. Included 4 different courses of study (not the electivism preferred by Eliot)d. No tracking for college vs. vocation – “education for life is education for college”e. Criticized heavily in the early 1900’s for not keeping up with changes in society and school populations, and for its focus on college
  • Ward's The Psychic Factors of Civilizaiton published

    Ward's The Psychic Factors of Civilizaiton published
    i. Welcomed government intervention in educational reform – but free from partisan influenceii. Committed to egalitarianism1. “proper distribution o
    (p. 22-23)
  • The Public School System of the United States, 1893

    i. Surveyed elementary schools in 36 cities in 1892ii. Published results in series of 9 articles in The Forum, collected into book form the following yeariii. Places blame for poor education on unqualified superintendents and school boards, incompetent teachers, and the misinformed public
  • National Herbart Society

    National Herbart Society
    V. National Herbart Societya. Opposed to traditional humanist curriculumb. Included member John Deweyc. President, Charles DeGarmoi. Led attack on Harris and the Committee of Fifteen at NEA meeting of 1895 in Cleveland, OHii. Argued against Harris’ use of Herbartian terms like “correlation” and “concentration” in non-Herbartian contexts
  • Committee of Fifteen

    Committee of Fifteen
  • Joseph Mayer Rice

    Undertook huge study in 1895 on the teaching of spelling, with no conclusive results
  • Edward A. Ross publishes Social Control

    Edward A. Ross publishes Social Control
    Storgly influenced the work of:
    -David Snedden
    -Ross Finney
    -Charles Ellwod
    -Charles C. Peters
    They devoted themselves to developing a curriculum consistent with Ross's ideas.\
  • G. Stanely Hall

    G. Stanely Hall
  • Douglas Commission

    Passed in 1905 by Massachusetts Senate and House of Reps
    Authorized Governer William L. Douglas to appoint a commision that would investigate industries and "what new forms of educational effort may be advisable"
    Dr. Susan M. Kingsbury appointed "expert investigator"
    Issued a report based on 20 public hearins and the testimony of 143 witnesses
    -agreement between "broader-minded students of education" and "men and women who have been brought into intimate contact with the harder side of life."
  • Kingsbury's "Report of the Sub-Committee on the Relation of Children to Industries"

    focused on the 25,000 children between the ages of 14-16 not in school
  • John Franklin Bobbitt

    John Franklin Bobbitt
    -Brought to University of Chicago by Charles H. Judd
    -Within a year, promoted from lecturer to Instructor
  • Loenard Ayres publishes Laggards in Our Schools

    "scientific treaties in educaion"
    studied the schools and the effects of students not making normal progress
    Studied school records instead of observation of the schools themselves
    said that the problems were in the curriculum
    -the curriculum was made for the "exceptionally bright" child, not the "slow" or "average."
    Developed index of Effic
  • Ayres developed Index of Efficiency

    Applied to 58 urban school systems
  • Discussion of vocational education for women alludes to women's rights

    Discussion of vocational education for women alludes to women's rights
  • Taylor publishes Principles of Scientific Management

    Taylor publishes Principles of Scientific Management
    "The heart of scientific management lay in the careful specification of the task to be performed and the ordering of the elements of that task in the most efficient sequence" 1st: Find 10 - 15 men skilled in the work to be analyzed
    2nd: Study the motions used for the work to be completed
    3rd: Time the movements
    4th: eliminate all false movements
    5th: Collect the best and fastest movements into a series
  • Rice's Scientific Management in Education

    Rice's Scientific Management in Education
    Rice's Forum articles were publised in a volumr
    - Focus shifted from "monotony and mindlessness of school life to the themes of standardization and efficiency in the curriculum."
    - Wanted to apply "management techniques" that had been utilized in industrial settings to the curriculum Places blame for poor education on unqualified superintendents and school boards, incompetent teachers, and the misinformed public
    (p.20)
  • Bobbitt publishes "The Elimination of Waste in Education"

    Bobbitt publishes "The Elimination of Waste in Education"
    -talks about the system developed by Willard Wirt in Gary, Indiana
    -"Platoon system"
    -shifted studens from classroms to other indoor rooms such as the auditorium or playground in a systematic fashion
    -schools = plants
    -superindendent = educational egnineer
    -extends the metaphor of a factory to the curriculum
  • School children prefer factor labor to school

    School children prefer factor labor to school
    In 1913, Helen M. Todd interviewed 500 school children and found that 412 preferred "factory labor to the monotony, humiliation and even sheer cruelty that they experienced in school." (Keliebard, 1995, p. 6)
  • Thondike's studies Transfer of Training

    "Imporvement in any single mental function need not imporve the ability in functions commonly called by the same name. It may injure it."
  • IQ and intelligence testing becoming prominent

    IQ and intelligence testing becoming prominent
  • Vocational edcuation regarded as an "urgent necessity"

    Vocational edcuation regarded as an "urgent necessity"
    "The whole curriculum for all but the college bound was becoming vocationalized"
  • The Project Method article Written by William Heard Kilpatrick

    The Project Method article Written by William Heard Kilpatrick
    Rekindles the developmentalist idea "that somwhere in the child lay the key to the revitalized curriculum"
  • Thorndike administers 2 forms of the same intelligence test to 8,564 highschool students

    "we find notable differences in gain in ability to think as measured by these tests, but they do not seem to be due to what one studies..Those who have the most to begin with gain the most during the year. Whatever studies they take will seem to produce large gains in intellect."