Roaring 1920s

The Roaring Twenties: Politics of Boom and Bust -Timeline

  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    Freud was a trailblazer for the new modern thinking era. He beleived that repressing sex and not talking about it was unhealthy. Throughout the twenties, this idea grew exponentially under Sigmund Freud particualrly. His book "The Ego and the Id" was published in 1923 and it explained how our sexual experiences in our childhood form our adult-selves.
  • Charlie Chaplin

    Charlie Chaplin
    One of the first "household names" and world wide icon famous for film acting, writing and producing. Created some of the first and most popular black-and-white silent films. Charlie Chaplin was controversial with his character "the Tramp" who had a moustache much resembling Hitler's.
  • Model T (Ford) (Beginning of Production)

    Model T (Ford) (Beginning of Production)
    The Ford Motor Co. released the Model T Ford from 1908-1927. Though it was shoddy and cheap, from it a motor industry was born. This industry displaced the railroads, promoted many industries (steel, oil, highway construction), employed millions, increased death rates, changed leisure, travel, and commuting, and made women more independent.
  • Duke Ellington (Creation of Sond "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing")

    Duke Ellington (Creation of Sond "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing")
    Jazz age artist who increased popularity in jazz age among blacks and whites. Ellington had no formal training and became known nationally for broadcasts of playings at the Cotton Club in Harlem, NYC. Best known songs include "It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing", and "Sophisticated Lady”.
  • KKK - Birth of the Nation

    KKK - Birth of the Nation
    Nativist resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan against Jews, Catholics, Communists, and Blacks. They only favored white, Anglo-Saxon Protestants. Had 5 million members by 1925 and had political influence. Wore white hoods and used such tactics as burning crosses and tar and featherings. D.W. Griffith’s movie which glorified the KKK of the Reconstruction days.
  • Marcus Garvey

    Marcus Garvey
    Major activist of the Harlem Renaissance. Created the United Negro Improvement Association in 1916. Start of black pride movement, black nationalism, black separatism, economic self-sufficiency, and a back-to-Africa movement. Expanded on ideas of W.E.B. Du Bois.
  • Volstead Act

    Volstead Act
    Legislation passed the Volstead Act to allow enforcment of the 18th Amendment. All trade, manufacturing, selling, and pocession of alcohol would be illegal according to the act. Breaking this law would result in criminal charges.
  • The Palmer Raids

    The Palmer Raids
    After World War I, totalitarianist goverenments were on the rise. Attourney General Palmer (pictured) launched a series of investigations and unjust imprisionments of anyone in America showing signs of Socialist beliefs. The Palmer Raids were responsible for the capture and imprisionment of 6,000 people, even though there was minimal evidence brought up.
  • The Red Scare (Beginning, bombings)

    The Red Scare (Beginning, bombings)
    he Red Scare was anti-Communist hysteria grown from anti-German war hysteria, unhappiness with the peace process, and a phobia of Socialism due to the Bolshevik Revolution. Lead by Att. Gen. A Mitchell Palmer, who carried out 6000 arrests on radicals, Socialists, labor agitators, and foreigners in the Palmer Raids. Sparked by unexplained bombings, suspected to be the act of radicals.
  • Jazz Age

    Jazz Age
    The 1920s was filled with jazz music and dancing making it the Jazz Age. The youth used jazz to rebel against their traditional culture. Flappers were introduced, many new songs composed, and many new dances were made. Jazz influenced a lot of classical composers such as George Gershwin and Herbert Howells.
  • Flappers

    Flappers were a part of the new modernization of social life. They were " a new breed of women" with short, bobbed hair, wearing lots of makeup, showing more skin, and were open to and comfortable with sex, driving, and alcoholism. They were a product of the Jazz age and the moral revolution that weren't the typical idea of the average woman.
  • Red Scare (End)

    Red Scare (End)
  • Prohibition

    Many women(especially of the Women's Christian Temperance Union) pushed for prohibition. They argued that it would protect the families from the abuse of alcohol. Even thought the sale of alcohol was illegal, "speakeasies" became popular and organized crime became rampant.
  • Election of Harding

    Election of Harding
    In the election of 1920, William G. Harding(Republican) and James M. Cox(Democrat) ran against each other. Harding won by a landslide taking over after Herbet Hoover from the Great Depression. Harding appointed Charles Even Hughes as Secretary of State, Andrew Mellon as Secretary of Treasury, and William Howard Taft as Chief Justice.
  • Teapot Dome Scandal

    Teapot Dome Scandal
    President Harding's Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Hall accepted a bribe in leasing a former Navy Oil Reserve to a private oil drilling company. This scandal is just one of many that occured in the Harding administration. The scandal went the Supreme Court, which restored the oil fields back to the U.S. Navy.
  • Emergency Quota Act of 1921

    Emergency Quota Act of 1921
    The United states passed the Emegergency Quota Act of 1921 to restrict foriegn immigration. Only 3% of a foriegn population was let into the country depending on the population in the U.S. according to the 1910 census.
  • Washington Naval Conference

    Washington Naval Conference
    The Washington Naval Conference was held to discuss naval disarmament of East Asia. This conference was held in Washington involving the world's biggest naval powers. They discussed how to avoid the threat of a possible war seeing Japan rising in militarism and an international arms race heightening. Major treaties that emerged from the conference were: the Five-Power Treaty, the Four-Power Treaty, and the Nine-Power Treaty.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti Case (Beginning)

    Sacco and Vanzetti Case (Beginning)
    Two Italian and anarchist men, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, were convicted of robbery and murder based on racist and nativist prejudices. Caused international debate where liberals and intellectuals argued that they were wrongfully convicted because of their ethnic and political status. Eventually executed in 1927.
  • Five-Power Naval Treaty

    Five-Power Naval Treaty
    Part of America’s movement in foreign policy towards peace and disarmament post-war. Countries with the 5 largest navies in the world agreed to maintain ratio of navy supplies relative to each other: US, 5; UK, 5; Japan, 3; France, 1.67; Italy, 1.67. UK and US agreed not to fortify Pacific possessions, Japan did not. Part of 1921 Washington Conference.
  • Four Power Treaty

    Four Power Treaty
    The Four Power Treaty was an agreement between four of the world's greatest powers, Great Britain, Japan, France and the U.S., to prevent any further issues in the Pacific. Terms of the agreement were to recognize the boundaries and territorial holdings of each nation, to refrain from further expansion in the Pacific, as well as to discuss any disagreements that occur in the process.
  • Nine-Power Treaty

    Nine-Power Treaty
    Signers of the Nine-Power Treaty included China, the United States, Great Britain (for the British Empire), Japan, Italy, France, Belgium, Portugal, and the Netherlands, The treaty stated that the countries respected sovereignty, independence, and territorial and administrative integrity of China. They repected the Open Door Policy for equal opportunity for the commerce and industry of all nations in China
  • Fordney-McCumber Tarriff

    Fordney-McCumber Tarriff
    After World War I, the U.S. wanted to protect its industry so imposed the Tariff. It was a 25% tax on any foreign manufactured import. The tariff made it challenging for Europe to pay off its war debt to the U.S. In response, Europe strengthened its own tariff and that hurt the U.S. economy. These actions was harmful to the global economy, and was a contributing cause to the Great Depression.
  • Dawes Plan

    Dawes Plan
    The Dawes Plan was the action decided to be taken for Germany to pay back the Allied powers, who needed to pay back the U.S. in turn. Charles Dawes, an American banker and Vice President under Calvin Coolidge, suggested that the U.S. lend Germany money so that they could pay back France and England, who owed the U.S. money, knowing that it would all be coming back to us. The plan backfired, and Finland was the only country to pay its war debt completely. This led to more tensions going into WWII
  • Bonus Army

    Bonus Army
    Congress had voted to give all World War I veterans a bonus in the 20s that would be paid in 1945. Between the 20s and 1945 was the Great Depression, which hit veterans especially hard. They plead with Congress to give them their bonuses becasue they were suffering. Congress declined, and the Bonus Expeditionary Force was founded .This got nicknamed the Bonus Army. Tens of thousands of veterans camped out in a civil manner in Washington D.C. The Bonus Army then resisted leaving, causing violence
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    Used to bar next wave of “New” Southern and Eastern European immigrants in prejudiced and nativist movements. Marked the end of unrestricted immigration to America. Employed the quota system to 2% nationalities for the 1890 census, favoring Northern European immigrants and discriminating against “New” Immigrants and Asians. Canada and Latin America were excluded due to proximity.
  • Election of Coolidge

    Election of Coolidge
    A three-way race between candidates for the 1924 election made a very close call for presidency. John W. Davis ran for the democrats, La Follette for the progressives, and Cooldige for republicans running for his second term. Coolidge won with popular majority and made many strides in his years of presidency.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    Harlem was the city in the North where the most African-Americans lived in the 20s. It was famous for the amount of talented African-American actors, singers, musicians, authors and artists. One of the most prominent figures of the Harlem Renaissance would be Langston Hughes, an American icon and poet that came out of this era.
  • Al Capone

    Al Capone
    Al Capone was one of the biggest crime bosses at the time. Taking conrtol of organized crime in Chicago, Al Capone (Scarface) was very successful in creating speakeasies, night clubs, gambling places, etc. He was very generous to the average citizen, yet killed dozens to keep his power. He was arrested later on for not paying taxes.
  • The Great Gatsby

    The Great Gatsby
    Written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, a disillusioned writer of the “lost generation” searching for new moral values and forms of expression post-war. The Great Gatsby is about the sparkle of the 1920s and the cruelty behind achievement. Fitzgerald wrote condemningly about monetary values and the pain of war in the postwar decade.
  • The Lost Generation

    The Lost Generation
    The Lost Generation is a name given to the authors of the 20s time period that had seen war and had been mentally and emotionally changed by it. Writing changed in this time period, exemplified best by the authors F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway. The authors lost a sense of hope and direction following World War I. They were redifining purpose because of all the atrocities they'd seen and all the good men that had died.
  • Scopes Trial

    Scopes Trial
    Tennessee court case over John T. Scopes, a high school teacher, who taught evolutionism in biology class pushed by the American Civil Liberties Union. This brought a big press scandal on the town of Dayton, TN. Scopes was defended by Clarence Darrow, a libertarian, and prosecuted by William Jennings Bryan, a Presbyterian Fundamentalists. The case developed over evolution vs. creation. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100, but the verdict was overtuned on a technicality.
  • Gertrude Ederle

    Gertrude Ederle
    Gertrude Ederle was the first woman to swim across the english channel (21 miles). She was the sixth person to complete the trip, but the first woman beating the previous record by two hours. He time was 14 hours 31 minutes.
  • Charles Lindbergh

    Charles Lindbergh
    Charles Lindbergh was the first man to make a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Althought there were men to fly across the Atlantic before him, he was the first to fly nonstop and alone.
  • Model T (Ford) (End of Production)

    Model T (Ford) (End of Production)
  • Sacco and Vanzetti Case (End)

    Sacco and Vanzetti Case (End)
    Date of their execution.
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    Kellogg-Briand Pact
    Treaty created by U.S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg and France's foreign minister Aristide Briand trying to avoid future wars. Most countries signed this Pact, which said that they would not use agressive forces, renouncing imperialism. For the most part, every nation signed it, but just like the League of Nations, its flaw was that there was no force backing it up and there was no consequence for violators.
  • Election of Hoover

    Election of Hoover
    The Election of 1928 was between the presidential candidates of Herbet Hoover(Republican) and Al Smith(Democrat). Herbet Hoover won by a landslide majority against his apponent. In his presidency, he made many strides such as increasing national parks and forests, the prison reform.
  • Smoot-Hawley Tariff

    Smoot-Hawley Tariff
    The Smoot-Hawley Tariff put a record high tariff on foreign products. This was to protect American industry but ended up worsening the depression. The import tax was around 40% which angered European countries.
  • Hoover- Stimson Doctrine

    Hoover- Stimson Doctrine
    After Japan invaded Manchuria, China, the U.S. created the Stimson Doctrine. It stated that the U.S. would refuse to accept any new borders as decided by Japan. Japan was violating the Kellogg-Briand Pact by using agression uipon another nation. Most contries agreed with the U.S.'s decision to ignore Japan's acquisition of Manchuria because most contries signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation

    Reconstruction Finance Corporation
    Established in response to President Hoover’s appeal for government assistance for corporations. The RFC was basically a government lending bank, with a half billion dollars to assist insurance companies, banks, agriculture organizations, railroads, local governments, etc, but no loans to individuals. Really helped out the corporations.