The House of Stuart

By XeshaM
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    James I

    King James I was the first king of the United Kingdom. He ascended to the throne in 1603, following the death of Queen Elizabeth I. James was a controversial monarch, and his reign was marked by numerous conflicts with Parliament. Despite these disagreements, James made significant progress in establishing the foundations of the United Kingdom. He also oversaw a period of great artistic and literary achievement in England.
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    Charles I

    King Charles I was the monarch of England, Scotland, and Ireland from March 27, 1625, until his execution. He was born on November 19, 1600 in Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline and was executed in 1649 in the city of Westminster. King James VI of Scotland was Charles’ father. Charles’ older brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, died in 1612, and then Charles became heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones.
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    Interregnum – Oliver Cromwel

    Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland. He ruled as Lord Protector and was Britain’s only non-monarch ruler (during the Interregnum period). He ruled as essentially a genocidal dictator and he’s very controversial to this day but his legacy is alive and well in Britain’s vibrant parliamentary democracy.
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    Charles II

    After the execution of his father in 1649, Charles assumed the title Charles II of England, and was formally recognised as King of Scotland and Ireland.
    In 1651 he led an invasion into England from Scotland to defeat Cromwell and restore the monarchy. He was defeated and fled to France where he spent the next eight years.
    In 1660 he was invited, by parliament, to return to England as King Charles II. This event is known as the Restoration.
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    James II

    King James II was the last Catholic monarch of England and Scotland. He ruled for a turbulent few years, during which time he faced two major invasions and numerous rebellions.
    James was an unpopular king, and his reign was marked by violence and religious conflict.
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    William III and Mary II

    William III and his wife Mary II (daughter of James II), were proclaimed joint sovereigns of England in 1688 following the Glorious Revolution. They were accepted by Scotland the following year, but Ireland, which was mainly Catholic, remained loyal to James II. William led an army into Ireland and James was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. Mary II died in 1694 and William ruled alone until his death in 1702.
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    Queen Anne

    Queen Anne was the sister of Mary II and was married to Prince George of Denmark. She was a committed Protestant and supported the Glorious Revolution that deposed her father and replaced him with her sister and brother-in-law. In 1707 the Act of Union formally united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland. She was the last Stuart monarch as none of her eighteen children survived beyond infancy.