Timeline picture

The History of Education in the U.S.A.

By MrsChu
  • Before the Revolutionary War, most people only knew how to read and figure their taxes.

    Before the Revolutionary War, most people only knew how to read and figure their taxes.
  • Average Lifetime School Attendance

    Average Lifetime School Attendance
    In 1776, the average lifetime school attendance was less than 82 days.
  • Thomas Jefferson's proposal for guaranteed education

    Thomas Jefferson's proposal for guaranteed education
    Jefferson introduced the idea that every person should be guaranteed 3 years of public education, with a select few moving on to an university education.
  • Period: to

    Jefferson sent his proposal to a vote 3 times during this time. Each time, it was defeated.

  • Webster published the "Bluebook Speller"

    Webster published the "Bluebook Speller"
    This book became known as America's textbook. It was also a precursor to Webster's English Dictionary.
  • Horace Mann's physical inspection of schools

    Horace Mann's physical inspection of schools
    Mann rode horseback from town to town and physically inspected the school buildings. He found varied school systems (no continuity) and structures that were not sound.
  • Average attendance is 4 months and the cost is $2.81/pupil (Massachusetts)

    Average attendance is 4 months and the cost is $2.81/pupil (Massachusetts)
  • By 1840, nearly 1/2 of New York residents were foreign born.

    By 1840, nearly 1/2 of New York residents were foreign born.
    This fact is a precursor to the debates and issues that arise when people argue for different systems all to be supported by public funds.
  • Debates on tax funds for schools that focus on different religions

    Debates on tax funds for schools that focus on different religions
  • Public School Society is replaced with the New York City Board of Education

    Public School Society is replaced with the New York City Board of Education
    The NYC Board of Education is a group chosen through election.
  • 90 African Americans petition Boston School Committee

    90 African Americans petition Boston School Committee
    The petition called for an immediate end to segregation in the school system.
  • Average attendance is 7 months and the cost is $4.80/pupil (Massachusetts)

    Average attendance is 7 months and the cost is $4.80/pupil (Massachusetts)
  • Robert's v. Boston reaches the Massachusets State Supreme Court

    Robert's v. Boston reaches the Massachusets State Supreme Court
    Robert's sued the city of Boston on behalf of his daughter, Sara. She was denied access to 5 white schools because of her race.
    Some African Americans supported Robert's case while others were pro-segregation.
    Chief Judge Shaw ruled against Robert's.
  • John Hughes becomes the Archbishop of New York

    John Hughes becomes the Archbishop of New York
    Hughes' power leads him to create a national system of Catholic schools.
  • A new law abolished segregation in schools.

    A new law abolished segregation in schools.
    This was in Massachusetts. It was the first law in the nation.
  • End of Civil War

    End of Civil War
    After the Civil War and the USA expanded west, it became a requirement of states to offer public education.
    Also, African American literacy jumped from about 5% to nearly 70%.
  • Public school funds reach $63 million and enrollment reaches 7.6 million

    Public school funds reach $63 million and enrollment reaches 7.6 million
  • U.S. provides schooling to children more than any other nation

    U.S. provides schooling to children more than any other nation
  • Public school funds reach $141 million and enrollment reaches 12.7 million

    Public school funds reach $141 million and enrollment reaches 12.7 million
  • Supreme Court cites Shaw when segregation was permitted

    Supreme Court cites Shaw when segregation was permitted
    Segregation was permitted on the basis that "separate could still be equal".
  • John Dewey publishes "School & Society"

    John Dewey publishes "School & Society"
    Dewey attacked the current curriculum.
    He is considered the father of progressive education.
  • 50% of children were enrolled in school and the average schooling was 5 years

    50% of children were enrolled in school and the average schooling was 5 years
  • World's Fair, Paris

    World's Fair, Paris
    America presented it's education system at the World's Fair. The focus was on their progressive techniques (which relies on "doing" rather than just sitting in class/reciting lessons).
  • 6% High School graduation rate for 17 year olds

    6% High School graduation rate for 17 year olds
  • Largest Steel Mill built on the shores of Lake Michigan

    Largest Steel Mill built on the shores of Lake Michigan
    This mill brought many immigrants to Gary, IN looking for work. The massive increase in population pushed Gary for more schools and more advancement in their progressive techniques.
    Their system became known as the "Gary plan".
  • As late as 1910, 2 million children were working across America.

    As late as 1910, 2 million children were working across America.
  • N.Y.C. Mayor John Mitchel put the Gary plan into action in 30 N.Y. schools

    N.Y.C. Mayor John Mitchel put the Gary plan into action in 30 N.Y. schools
    This act led to violent controversy all over the city.
  • N.Y.C. Mayor's Race

    N.Y.C. Mayor's Race
    Democratic representative John Hylan attacked the Gary plan as a plot to turn out cheap labor for big corporations.
    The public became feared that the plan was limiting the immigrant children's career possibilities.
    Riots break out over the Gary plan (police are attacked, school buildings are damaged, etc.).
    Hylan won and got rid of the Gary plan for N.Y.C.
  • America enters World War I

    America enters World War I
  • WWI Ends

    WWI Ends
    The end of the war led to the destruction of many books on the German language/culture.
    At least 35 states required that schools teach English only.
  • $1 billion expenditure & 17% High School graduation rate for 17 year olds

    $1 billion expenditure & 17% High School graduation rate for 17 year olds
  • By the 1920s, 1 million kids are tested (IQ tests) each year.

    By the 1920s, 1 million kids are tested (IQ tests) each year.
  • In the 1930s, child labor was banned and school attendance was required until the age of 16.

    In the 1930s, child labor was banned and school attendance was required until the age of 16.
  • By the 1930s, 2/3 of Mexian-American students were labeled "mentally retarded" or slow.

    By the 1930s, 2/3 of Mexian-American students were labeled "mentally retarded" or slow.
  • 45% High School graduation rate for 17 year olds

    45% High School graduation rate for 17 year olds
  • Education Statistics

    Education Statistics
    *African-Americans are segregated by law in 17 states.
    *Mexican-American students are in school an average of 5.4 years.
    *72% of disabled children are not enrolled in school.
  • Average School Attendance is 9 years

    Average School Attendance is 9 years
    Average School Attendance is 9 years
  • Arthur Bestor publishes "Educational Wastelands"

    Arthur Bestor publishes "Educational Wastelands"
    He did not agree with progressive education and he wanted the schools to return to basic subjects.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    The Supreme Court reaches a unanimous decision on the Brown v. Board of Education case - they decide against segregation.
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    Effects of Brown v. BOE

    *After the Brown v. BOE case, schools become integrated. *However, students are still not accepted in the previous white schools and some black students did not want to change school because of this fact.
    *Also, more than 30,000 black teachers are displaced because the newly integrated schools will not hire them.
  • Little Rock, Arkansas

    Little Rock, Arkansas
    *The Arkansas governor called the national guard to keep out 9 black students from school.
    *President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort those 9 students to school.
  • The Russians send Sputnik to space

    The Russians send Sputnik to space
    They beat the U.S. to space which was a staggering moment for Americans. They could not understand how the Russians beat the U.S.
    This lead to the Eisenhower education act.
    This also led an academic push towards math, science, and engineering in the schools.
  • President Eisenhower passes the National Defense Education Act

    President Eisenhower passes the National Defense Education Act
    This act allowed gave money to schools yearly- about $100 million/year which was the largest of the time.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    The Civil Rights Act was passed which stated that schools could lose federal funding if they were not integrated.
  • 85% of 16 year olds plan to attend college

    85% of 16 year olds plan to attend college
    85% of 16 year olds plan to attend college
  • In Texas, 75% of Mexican-American students drop out by 8th grade.

    In Texas, 75% of Mexican-American students drop out by 8th grade.
    In Texas, 75% of Mexican-American students drop out by 8th grade.
  • Students in Texas, petition the school board.

    Students in Texas, petition the school board.
    87% at Crystal City are Mexican-American
    The students draw up a list of "demands" on how they should be treated by other students and instructors.
    When the school board refused, over 500 students went on "strike" and protested the school.
    They also contacted the civil rights group with the U.S. Dept of Justice.
  • 4 seats are filled by Mexican-Americans in the TX school board

    4 seats are filled by Mexican-Americans in the TX school board
  • The supreme court uses busing to help integrate schools.

    The supreme court uses busing to help integrate schools.
  • 91% of black children attend integrated schools

    91% of black children attend integrated schools
    91% of black children attend integrated schools
  • Supreme Court boosts support of bilingual education

    Supreme Court boosts support of bilingual education
    Published new teaching materials in almost 70 languages.
    They gave $68 million for bilingual programs.
  • The Women's Equity Action League charged the government for not enforcing the law (with regards to equality).

    The Women's Equity Action League charged the government for not enforcing the law (with regards to equality).
  • Choice Experiment begins

    Choice Experiment begins
    East Harlem creates small, alternative schools in existing buildings. They went from 20 schools to 52 schools.
  • The civil rights legislation was extended to over 3 million disabled students.

    The civil rights legislation was extended to over 3 million disabled students.
  • Average School Attendance is 12.5 years

    Average School Attendance is 12.5 years
    Average School Attendance is 12.5 years
  • Reagan speaks on "learning crisis".

    Reagan speaks on "learning crisis".
    This wasn't really the truth- schools were being blamed for the bad economy.
  • Voucher system in Wisconsin

    Voucher system in Wisconsin
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    More than 200 deaths from shooting in schools

  • Debate on whether to use vouchers for religious schools

    Debate on whether to use vouchers for religious schools
    Supreme Court says no- it would violate the separation of church and state.
  • 1500 students use voucher system in Milwuakee

    1500 students use voucher system in Milwuakee
  • $80 million to aid in the construction of charter schools

    $80 million to aid in the construction of charter schools
  • Charter schools run by "for profit" corporations = 173

    Charter schools run by "for profit" corporations = 173
    There are at least 2100 charter schools in the U.S. and more than 90,000 public schools.
  • Public school enrollment is at 47.8 million - almost 90%

    Public school enrollment is at 47.8 million - almost 90%