The History of Education 1770 to Present

  • The New England Primier

    The New England Primier
    Incorporated into the schools by the Protestant religion.
  • Period: to

    The History of Education

  • The "average lifetime school attendance" was "less than 82 days

  • Independence Day

    Independence Day
    The day the American colonies broke ties with Britian and became an independent nation
  • Drafted Proposal for 3 Years Education for all Children

    Drafted Proposal for 3 Years Education for all Children
    Thomas Jefferson was a firm believer that in order for Democracy to spread, Amercians needed to be educated. The only problem with this proposal was that it allowed an advanced education for a select few after three years, girls could only have three years before preparing for marriage, and slaves could not be educated. The draft was defeated in 1817.
  • Blue Back Speller created to teach elementary students about the United States and its inhabitants

    Blue Back Speller created to teach elementary students about the United States and its inhabitants
    Noah Webster felt that schools needed to "eliminate British textbooks from American classrooms" in order for American education and Democracy to flourish.
  • Horace Mann finds education systems to be based on inequity

    Horace Mann finds education systems to be based on inequity
    Mann, who was Massachusett's Secretary of Education, found that only wealthy students could afford to stay in school longer while poorer students couldn't afford to attend at all. He wanted the elite and poor to come together.
  • Massachusetts Average Attendance: 4 Months

    The Annual Cost Per-Pupil Cost: $2.81
  • It is found that 1/2 of New York is foreign born

    It is found that 1/2 of New York is foreign born
    The majority of immigrants coming across the Atlantic were Catholic- Irish. This will later cause a religious problem with the Protestants in education.
  • Philadelphia Bible Riots

    Philadelphia Bible Riots
    A dispute between the Catholic and Protestant Churches pertaining to the Protestant bibles being used in public schools. It left 13 people dead.
  • 90 African Americans in Boston called for an end to segregation in the schools

    90 African Americans in Boston called for an end to segregation in the schools
  • Massachusetts Average Attendance: 7 Months

    The Annual Per-Pupil Cost: $4.80
  • Roberts v. Boston to end racial discrimination in school

    Benjamin Roberts sued the state of Boston on behalf of his five year old daughter Sarah Roberts who was not accetped to any white school close to her home because she was black. The Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled in favor of Boston.
  • Law passed by U.S. Supreme Court to desegragate schools in Massachusetts

    Law passed by U.S. Supreme Court to desegragate schools in Massachusetts
    This end would later give way to the U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson declaring seperate but equal.
  • The end of the Civil War

    The end of the Civil War
    General Lee surrenders to Grant at Appamatox. This begins the literacy for slaves.
  • U.S. Public School Expedentures and Enrollment

    $63 million and 7.6 million students
  • U.S. Public School Expedentures and Enrollment

    $141 million and 12.7 million students
  • 1890-1930: Over 22 million immigrants arrived to the United States

    There was about three million children who also arrived.
  • School and Society written by John Dewey

    School and Society written by John Dewey
    Was known as the Father of Progressive Education
  • 50% of children in school on average for 5 years

  • 6% of 17 year olds graduated high school

  • William Wirt institutes The Gary Plan

    William Wirt institutes The Gary Plan
    This was a progressive plan instituted in Gary, Indiana that focused on the notion of work, study, and play. This curriculum kept students in motion instead of sitting all day for five to six hours.
  • 2 milion children working across America

    2 milion children working across America
  • World War 1

    World War 1
  • Gary Plan attacked and cancelled

    Democratic nominee John Highland attacked and criticized The Gary Plan for creating factory workers instead of educated citizens. Riots ensued and Gary Plan is cancelled after Highland wins the election of 1917.
  • Chicago school students destroy non-English textbooks

    Chicago school students destroy non-English textbooks
    At the end of the Great War, 35 states are then required to teach in English only and in history only talk about American heroes.
  • 2/3 of Southern Italian children have left shool by the 8th grade

    2/3 of Southern Italian children have left shool by the 8th grade
    Public School expedentures during this time were $1 billion.
  • Ellwood P. Cubberley and his Science of School Managment

    Ellwood P. Cubberley and his Science of School Managment
    Adhered to a "no one size fits all" educational philosophy. Introduced career tracking.
  • Lewis Terman and the creation of the IQ assessment

    Lewis Terman and the creation of the IQ assessment
    Over 1 million children were tested every year for their IQ abilitites. This was also a time when 2/3 of Mexican American students were classified as slow learners and mentally retarded due to "low" IQ tests.
  • Federal law banning child labor

    Federal law banning child labor
    Children were now required to attend school up until the age of 16.
  • 1940s-1950s Life Adjustment Education

    1940s-1950s Life Adjustment Education
    Was a misinterpretation of John Dewey's progressive thoughts on education. This curriculum focused on teaching students about living. For ex: It taught them when to "say goodbye" and when to have the "first kiss" and so on.
  • 45% of 17 year olds graduate high school

  • 3/5th of students graduated from high school and 50% went on to college

  • Racial Minorities Statistics in schools

    Racial Minorities Statistics in schools
    African Americans segregated by law: 17 states
    Average schooling for Mexican Americans: 5.4 years
    Percentage of disabled students not enrolled in school: 72%
  • Between 1950-1970 over 30,000 African American teachers were displaced

    Between 1950-1970 over 30,000 African American teachers were displaced
  • Percentage of African Americans with High School Diplomas

    13.7%
  • Medical and law degrees awarded to women

    .095%
  • Average school attendance 1950

    9 years
  • Arthur Bestor and his Educational Wastlands

    Arthur Bestor and his Educational Wastlands
    Wanted basic education to be returned. There was a conflict between progressive and traditional learning. Bestor wanted a return to traditional learning that did not focus on life as it did on the sciences and mathmatics.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Declaring seperate but equal unconstitutional, ending segregation in public schools.
  • LIttle Rock High School

    LIttle Rock High School
    The Govenor of Arkansas called out the National Guard rather than allow 9 black students to enter into Little Rock High School. Eisenhower sent in Federal troops to enforce Brown v. Board of Education.
  • Launch of Sputnik

    Launch of Sputnik
    With the Russians the first to enter space, this caused great controversy in America because there was this thought that Russians were more educated in math and science.
  • National Defense Education Act

    National Defense Education Act
    Eisenhower establishes the National Defense Education Act to aid public schools in focusing on high levels of math and science.
  • A high school diploma was no longer a luxery but a necessity.

    A high school diploma was no longer a luxery but a necessity.
  • President Lyndon B. Johnson

    President Lyndon B. Johnson
    Lyndon B. Johnson was a former teacher in Texas and was very sympethetic to the notion that an equal chance in school meant an equal chance in life. He created Federal programs to help disadvantaged students.
  • 90% of African American students still in black schools

  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    An act that stated that schools could lose their federal funding if they refused to desegregate.
  • Elementary and Secondary Act

    Elementary and Secondary Act
    This bill, created by Lyndon B. Johnson, provided $4 billion to aid disadvantaged schools.
  • Mexican American drop out rate

    Mexican American drop out rate
    In Texas, 75% of Mexican Americans were dropping out of school by the 8th grade.
  • Bilingual Education Act

    Bilingual Education Act
    An act created to meet the needs of children whose first language was not English. By 1974 the act published new books into 70 different languages and provided $68 million for bilingual programs.
  • Crystal City, Texas school petition

    Crystal City, Texas school petition
    Mexican Americans in Crystal City, Texas draw up a petition to stop being treated poorly in schools by white teachers. The petition was turned down and 2/3 of the students went on strike.
  • Mexican Americans gained 4 out of the 7 seats on the Board of Education

  • The Detroit School Busing Case

    The Detroit School Busing Case
    A Federal Judge ordered suburban students to bus to Detroit while Detroit students were ordered to bus to the suburban schools. About 800,000 students were affected by this. This was done in order to help with desegregation. By 1974 the case was struck down.
  • Title 9

    Title 9
    Was an act just like the Civil Right Act that prohibited federal funding to schools that descriminated against gender.
  • Choice Experiment implemented

    Choice Experiment implemented
    This was an experiment to creat small alternative schools within the same school building.
  • 3.7 million disabled students are included into the classrooms

    3.7 million disabled students are included into the classrooms
  • Percentage of African Americans with High School Diplomas

    51.4%
  • Medical and law degrees awarded to women

    30%
  • Average school attendance 1980

    12.5 years
  • 85% of students graduated

  • Junior high school choice

    Junior high school choice
    By 1982, all junior high students were asked to chose a school to attend. Whether it be alternative or regular. Also, any school that is deemed failing would be shut down.
  • Higher Graduation Requirements and Annual Cost Standardized Test

    Between 1983 and 1984, 35 states adopted higher graduation requirements for their students with $500 million being spent in standardized testing.
  • Reagan blames the Civil Rights Act for poor school performance

    Reagan blames the Civil Rights Act for poor school performance
  • School Shootings

    School Shootings
    Throughout the entire 1990s, over 200 student deaths resulted from school shootings by other students.
  • New York started to allow students to seek enrollment anywhere in the city

  • School Vouchers

    School Vouchers
    President George Bush calls for vouchers which will provide money to low income students so that they can have a chance to go to private schools. The vouchers would be collected through tax payers income.
  • Home Schooling

    Home Schooling
    By the late 1990s, home schooling became legal in all 50 states. By 2000-2001, 2.5% of students in the country are home schooled.
  • Channel 1 implemented into the classrooms

    Channel 1 implemented into the classrooms
    By 2000, 1/4 of secondary schools were showing Channel 1 to students. It was a 12 minute segment everyday that focused on students and advertisments.
  • Charter Schools v. Public Schools

    Charter Schools v. Public Schools
    Between 2001 and 2002, the total number of charter schools totalled 2,100. This was growing fast compared to the stagnant 90,000 public schools.
  • Public school attendance and enrollment

    Between 2001 and 2002, there were 47.8 million students attending public schools with 90% enrollment.