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The History of Astronomy

  • 100

    The Geocentric Theory*^

    The Geocentric Theory*^
    Greek astronomer Aristotle creates the Geocentric theory, in which there is a perfect universe and the planets and the sun revolve around Earth. It might have been proven wrong early on, if not for Ptolemy.
    *All of the events with the asterix do not have the exact date. Dates this old are hard to get!
    ^100 Ad is as close as TimeToast allows me to get to 300 BC
  • 140

    The Proof*

    The Proof*
    Claudius Ptolemy was a Roman astronomer who explained Aristotle's theory by explaining that the planets revolved in smaller circles while revolving around Earth. This made the geocentric theory last for over 1000 years more.
  • Jan 1, 1507

    The Heliocentric Theory*

    The Heliocentric Theory*
    Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who came up with the theory that the plants revolved around the sun. This theory started knocking some sense into people, making some realize the truth.
  • Galileo's Invention*

    Galileo's Invention*
    Galileo Galilei, an Italian astronomer, invented a telescope for scientific means that changed the history of science. With his new telescope, he was able to prove Copernicus's theory and view stars no one had seen before.
  • The Discovery of Gravity*

    The Discovery of Gravity*
    Sir Issac Newton was summoned by Sir Edmund Halley to learn why the moon didn't just float off into space instead of staying in orbit. Newton found the answer to the question when an apple fell out of a tree. That's when he realized the same thing that pulled the apple down to Earth was the same thing the kept the moon in orbit. He called it gravity.
  • Sputnik I Launches

    Sputnik I Launches
    The Russian government launched this metal shpere into space. It was the first man-made object to orbit Earth entirely. This event started the Space Race.
  • Period: to

    The Space Race

    This HUGE competition between the US and Soviet Russia is one of the main reasons we have so much information on space today.
  • Explorer I Launches

    Explorer I Launches
    After the Sputnik launch and the failure of the launch of Vangaurd, the US was FINALLY able to put a rocket in space. It was, as you probably have figured out by now, the first American object to orbit the Earth.
  • First American Astronauts Chosen

    First American Astronauts Chosen
    The first seven US astronauts were chosen. They were M. Scott Carpenter, Leroy Cooper; John Glenn, Jr.; Virgil Grissom, Jr.; Walter Schirra, Jr.; Alan Shepard, Jr.; and Donald Slayton. One of them became the first American in space.
  • First Human In Space

    First Human In Space
    Yuri Gagarin, a Russian cosmonaut was the first to be in space. He was also the first human to orbit the Earth. Yuri never flew in space again, but he will never be forgotten.
  • First American in Space

    First American in Space
    Alan Shepard, Jr., one of the first astronauts of NASA, is sent into space aboard Freedom 7. The flight lasted around 15.5 minutes. Shepard layer became the oldest person to walk on the moon.
  • First American to Orbit Earth

    First American to Orbit Earth
    The first American to orbit our planet was John Glenn, one of the first seven astronauts of NASA. He revolved three times in almost 5 hours. John was also the first American to take a picture of Earth from space. After being senator of Ohio, he went into space one last time at age 77.
  • First Private Satellite Launched

    First Private Satellite Launched
    On this day, NASA launched Teslar I, the private satellite that carried the first telephone and TV satellite signals. It was designed by AT&T, who paid NASA three million to launch Teslar. It sent videos out to two people in two different countries.
  • First Woman in Space

    First Woman in Space
    The first woman in space was Valentina Tereshkova. She completed 48 orbits in 71 hours. That is longer than all of the American astronauts' space time put together (at the time).
  • First Spacewalk

    First Spacewalk
    Russian cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov was the first to do a space walk. The walk lasted 10 minutes. This event confirmed Soviet Russia's lead in the Space Race.
  • First American Spacewalk

    First American Spacewalk
    The first american to walk in space was Edward White. The spacewalk lasted 23 minutes, with White taking pictures of Earth while out there. The walk was broadcast the entire US and 12 European countries. White described the end of his walk as "the saddest moment in my life."
  • Mariner 4 Capures Mars

    Mariner 4 Capures Mars
    The Mariner 4, after an 8-month journey, got within 6,118 miles of Mars and was able to take pictures, which were sent to Earth. Scientists, always believing before that Mars had an Earth-like surface, were suprised to see Mars's surface was barren and covered in craters, more like the moon.
  • First Tradegy in NASA

    First Tradegy in NASA
    Three astronauts-Virgil Grissom, Edward White, and Roger Chaffee were killed when a fire broke out in their capsule during a prelaunch test. The fire started from and electrical spark that got out of control because of the pure oxygen atmosphere. Other NASA missions were cancelled while the capsule was redesigned.
  • First Lunar Orbit

    First Lunar Orbit
    The Apollo VIII crew-Frank Borman; James Lovell, Jr.; and William Anders were the first humans to orbit the moon. The flight started on the 21st and ended on the 27th.
  • First Men on Moon

    First Men on Moon
    There were two men that first walked on the moon: Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin. They landed at 4:38 pm and stepped out at 11:08 pm. The two American astronauts spent 90 minutes on the moon conducting expiraments and planting the American flag.
  • First Soviet Space Station

    First Soviet Space Station
    The space station, Salyut, launched unmanned using a Proton rocket. The first crew to attempt to dock in the space station failed, but the second crew was able to dock. Sadly, the second crew died when oxygen escaped from the space station during reentry on October 11th.
  • First Lunar Rover Exploration

    First Lunar Rover Exploration
    The "Rover" was first used by David Scott and James Irwin. The Rover explored a moon region called Hadley Rille. The Rover went 27 miles in 3 days. The mission was ended on August 7th.
  • Pioneer 11 Captures Saturn

    Pioneer 11 Captures Saturn
    The US probe got within 13,000 miles of Saturn and within 1,200 miles of Saturn's rings. It took the first closeup images of Saturn. Data from the probe showed that Saturn has radiation belts and a strong magnetic field.
  • First US Space Station Launches

    First US Space Station Launches
    Skylab launches almost two years after Salyut I. Sixty-three seconds into the mission, the space station lost its meteor shield. That was a very big problem, so the station went under repairs, but it stayed out there.
  • Period: to

    First US Space Station

    Skylab lasted over six years.
  • Joint US-Soviet Mission Launched

  • Pioneer 10 Lands on Jupiter

    Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to travel past Mars on this day. This US probe noted Jupiter's large magnetic field. It sent 300 pictures of Jupiter and 3 of its 63 moons-Castillo, Ganymede, and Europa-to Earth. After studying Jupiter, Pionner 10 flew oof and became the first man-made object to leave the solar system.
  • Space Shuttle Program is Founded

    The STS, or the Space Transportation System, becomes the world's first reusable spacecraft. The first shuttle to take off is the Columbia. The pilots, John Young and Robert Crippen, are credited with the test launch.
  • US and Russia Sign Cooperation Act

    Finally, after so many years, the Space Race is over. The US Government is not spending billions to make spaceships. We can all relax now.