The cold war

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    NATO and the Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw pactIn 1949 the U.S, Canada, and ten other countries formed a new military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In 1955 the Soviet Union responded by forming their own military alliance, the Warsaw Pact. The pact included the Soviet Union, and seven satellites in Eastern Europe. Unlike NATO, the Warsaw Pact was often invoked by the Soviets to keep its satellites in order. It cemented the division of Europe into Eastern and Western Blocs.
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    Nuclear Arms Race and Detente

    Nuclear Arms RaceBy 1949 the Soviet Union had created nuclear weapons. By 1953 both sides had developed hydrogen bombs. People argued that these weapons were too destructible and the people lived in fear. In 1969, the U.S. and the Soviet Union began Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) to limit nuclear weapons. In 1972 and 1979 both sides signed agreements setting these limits. In 1980s, Ronald Reagan created a program to build a “Star Wars” missile defense against nuclear attack. People argued that this would
  • The Berlin Wall

    The Berlin Wall
    Berlin was a key focus of Cold War tensions, the city of Berlin was split into democratic West Berlin, and communist East Berlin. In the 1950s west Berlin became a showcase for prosperity. Low-paid East Germans were unhappy with communism so they fled into West Berlin. The Berlin wall was built in 1961 to stop the flight. When the wall was finished it was topped with barbed wire and patrolled by guards.
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    Communist Cuba and Missile Crisis 1

    The most serious Cold War conflict in the Western Hemisphere involved Cuba. In the 1950’s Fidel Castro organized an armed rebellion against against the corrupt dictator that ruled Cuba. In 1959, Castro had led his army to victory and set about transforming the country. The transformation was known as the Cuban Revolution. He sought support of the Soviet Union. He nationalized businesses and put most land under government control. He also restricted Cubans’ political freedom.
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    Communist Cuba and Missile Crisis 2

    Communist Cuba and Missile CrisisThe Us tried to bring down communist regime in Cuba. The United States imposed a trade embargo on Cuba that still remains today. In 1962, the Soviet Union sent nuclear missiles to Cuba. President Kennedy responded by imposing a naval blockade that prevented further Soviet shipmates. Kennedy demanded the Soviet Union remove the nuclear missiles from Cuba, and for a few days, the world faced a risk of nuclear war. Finally Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove the Soviet missiles and the war was avert
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    Chinese Civil War

    Communism had won over China with Mao’s rule. Communism had won over nationalist because it supported the peasant population, which was huge in China. When the idea of Communist grew the Nationalist lost popularity. The widespread communist support helped Mao’s People’s Liberation Army to capture rail lines and surround the Nationalist cities; these cities soon fell. Mao built a one-party totalitarian state in People’s Republic China. Communism guided the governments efforts to reshape the
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    Chinese Civil War

    economy and society of China. The Communism discouraged the traditional Chinese beliefs. Landlords and middle classes land was taken and distributed to peasants. Many landlords and middle class people were beaten, killed, or sent to labor camps for counterrevolution.From 1958 to 1960 people carried out the plan to boost agricultural and industrial production, but turned out to be a failure. It only produced useless crops and famine. Between 1959 and 1961 55 million Chinese starved to death.
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    Chinese Civil War

    Chinese Civil WarChina slowly recovered by taking a more practical approach to the economy, but in response to the revolution people formed Red Guards who went after anyone who seemed to be bourgeois. Later Mao’s army restored order.
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    Korean Conflict

    After Japan’s defeat in World War II, Soviet and American forces agreed to divide Korea temporarily along the 38th parallel of latitude. North Korea was ruled by the communist dictator Kim II Sung, which became an ally of the Soviet Union. South Korea was ruled by the non-communist dictator Syngman Rhee, who was put in by the United States. Sung called for a “heroic struggle” to reunite Korea. North Korean troops attacked in June and overran most of the south. The United Nations Security Council
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    Korean Conflict

    condemned the invasion. The US then organized United Nations forces to help South Korea. North Korean troops continued to advance until August when the United Nations troops stopped them along a line known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, United Nation troops landed on the beaches along the port of Inch’on, behind enemy lines. The US led troops captured Korea’s north-south rail lines and cut off North Korean troops from their supply of food and ammunition. The North Korean forces
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    Korean Conflict

    Korean Conflict surrendered. By November, the United Nations forces advanced north to the Yalu River. In November, China sent troops to help North Korea and the United Nations was forced back to the 38th parallel. The war turned into a stalemate. In 1953, both sides signed an armistice. North Korea and South Korea developed separately after the armistice. North Korea was a communist command economy and South Korea as a capitalist market economy.
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    Nuclear Arms Race and Detente

    violate the ABM treaty (anti-ballistic missile). So in 1991, the two sides signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. These agreements led to a detente; a time of relaxed tensions during the 1970s. The American strategy under detente was to restrain the Soviet Union from diplomatic agreements than by military means. The detente ended in 1979 when Soviets invaded Afghanistan.
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    The Vietnam Conflict 1

    After 1954 Vietnam became part of the cold war. Western and communist powers agreed to temporary divide Vietnam. Northern Vietnam was led by Ho Chi Minh and belonged to the communist. Southern Vietnam was led by Ngo dinh Diem and belonged to a non-communist government that was supported by the United States.Some South Vietnamese people saw Ho Chi Minh as a national hero and saw the United States as a foreign power. Ngo Dinh Diems saw communist as threat.
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    The Vietnam Conflict 2

    Ngo Dinh’s dictatorial regime alienated many Vietnamese with its corrupted and brutal tactics against political opponents. By 1960’s the communist guerrilla fighters appeared in South Vietnam. Many saw their fight as a nationalist struggle to free Vietnam. Ho Chi continues to remain determined to reunite Vietnam as a communist country. He helped that Viet Cong or the communist rebels that tried to overthrow the South Government. The US sent only supplies than later sent thousands of troops.
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    The Vietnam Conflict 3

    On August 1,1964 South Vietnamese commandos conducted raids on North Vietnamese islands in the Gulf of Tonkin. The next day, North Vietnamese attacked a nearby U.S. Navy destroyer.President Johnson reported to the attacks to Congress, but left out the South raids. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 7, 1964. This allowed the President to take all measures that were necessary to prevent further aggression.
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    The Vietnam Conflict 4

    Vietnam ConflectThe US began bombing North Vietnam and sent 500,000 American troops to war. The American troops fought a guerrilla war within the jungles. America became very divided. Finally President Nixon negotiated the Paris Peace Accord in January of 1973, to end American involvement in the war. In 1975, the North conquered the South. In 1776 the South Capital was renamed after their leader. Vietnam was now reunited into a communist country.
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    Soviet Union Falls

    The Soviet Union emerged from World War II as a superpower with an Eastern European sphere of influence stretching from the Baltic to the Balkans. Stalin continued to fill forced labor camps with “enemies of the state.” Under Stalin’s successor, Nikita Khrushchev, soviets enjoyed greater freedom of speech. Some were freed from prisons and labor camps. Hungarians tried to break free from soviet control in 1956, Khrushchev sent tanks to enforce obedience.
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    Soviet Union Falls

    The soviet union used things stripped from Germany to rebuild their industries after World War II. The Soviet economy faced severe problems. Russia had still not caught up in agricultural production, so it had to import grain to feed their people. During the cold war, the economies of Eastern Europe and Soviet union stagnated. When the US president Ronald Reagan launched a new round of missile development, the Soviet economy could not afford to match it.
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    Soviet Union Falls

    In 1979 The Soviet Union became involved in the war in Afghanistan.The soviets had years of heavy casualties, high costs, and few successes. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came into power of the Soviet Union. He sought to avoid Cold War confrontations. He signed treaties with the united States and pulled the Soviet troops out of Afghanistan. He ended censorship and encouraged people to discuss the country’s problems openly.
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    Soviet Union Falls

    He reduced the size of the bureaucracy and backed limited private enterprise to improve efficiency. Shortages grew and prices soared. Beginning in 1989, Eastern European countries from Poland to Bulgaria broke away from the Soviets orbit. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania regained full independence in 1991. At the end of 1991, Gorbachev resigned as president, the remaining soviet republics separated to form 12 independent nations, in addition to the three Baltic states.
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    Soviet Union Falls

    Soviet union fallsMaps of Europe had to be redrawn to reflect new political boundaries. After 69 years, the soviet empire ceased to exist.
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    Eastern European Independence

    When Gorbachev introduced glasnost and perestroika in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europeans began to seek greater freedom in their own countries. Many Europeans were opposed to communist rule. Revolts had erupted in communist controlled countries. The demands for change increased. Hungry remained loyal to the Warsaw Pact and maintained communist political control; it was allowed to make reforms which included elements of a market economy. Economic troubles led to greater discontent.
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    Eastern European Independance

    Under public pressure the communist government allowed greater freedoms. Lech Walesa created an independent labor union which demanded political and economic change. The Polish led the resistance and others such as Germany gave thousands of demonstrations. Later Gorbachev declared he would not interfere with Eastern European reforms. Everywhere, people took to the streets demanding reforms; communist governments fell. Vaclav Havel was elected president.
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    Eastern European Independence

    Eastern European IndependenceIn East Germany the gates to the Berlin wall was opened and the country started down the road to reunification with West Germany. When Nicolae Ceausescu refused to step down he was overthrown and executed. In 1991 the Warsaw Pact was dissolved and the Russian troops were requested to leave. By then, the Soviet Union itself had crumbled.
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    Soviets in Afghanistan

    In1979 the Soviet Union engaged in a long war with Afghanistan. The Afghan government, who was supported by the Soviets had tried to modernized the nation, but the Soviet’s policies within the Afghan government included social reforms and land redistribution. The land redistribution would reduce the power of the regional landlords. Men called warlords and Muslim conservatives protested that the policies threatened the Islamic tradition.
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    Soviets in Afghanistan

    The warlords and people took arms to the government and forced Soviets to move in troops.The Muslim warriors or mujahedin in Afghanistan however were difficult to fight. The Americans had saw this as an opportunity and started smuggling modern weapons to the mujahedin by the 1980’s. The Soviet’s had suffered years of high war cost with few successes and heavy casualties. When Gorbachev took over in 1985 he made many reforms and signed arms with the United States.
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    Soviets in Afghanistan

    Soviets in AfghanistanHe also pulled Soviet troops out of Afghanistan in order to avoid Cold- War confrontations.