Student diversity

Student Diversity

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    Key Decisions Affecting Mexican and Asian American Students in US Schools

  • Naturalization Act of 1790

    Naturalization Act of 1790
    The original United States Naturalization Law of March 26, 1790 provided the first rules to be followed by the United States in the granting of national citizenship. This law limited naturalization to immigrants who were “free white persons” of “good moral character”. It thus, left out indentured servants, slaves, free blacks, and later Asians. While women were included in the act, the right of citizenship did “not descend to persons whose fathers have never been resident in the United States….”
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    In the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded to the United States all of present-day California, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, and parts of other states. The treaty also approved the 1845 annexation of Texas by the United States.
  • English-only Instruction Mandated in California

    English-only Instruction Mandated in California
    The California Bureau of Instruction mandated that all schools teach only in English.
    "This linguistic purism went hand in hand with the nativist sentiments expressed in that year's legislature, including the suspension of the publication of state laws in Spanish." - Leonard Pitt
  • Chinese are not "White"

    Chinese are not "White"
    U.S. Supreme Court rules that Chinese are not "white" and, therefore, ineligible for citizenship under the 1790 Naturalization Act: A federal district court in California ruled that under the 1790 Naturalization Act citizenship was restricted to whites only and, consequently immigrant Chinese, shuch as Chan Yong, were not eligible for U.S. citizenship.
  • English-only Instruction in Texas

    English-only Instruction in Texas
    The Texas Legislature passed a school law requireing English to be the language of instruction in all public schools.
  • No Public Education for Asian Americans

    No Public Education for Asian Americans
    California school code provides no public education for Asian Americans.
  • Chinese Exclusion Law

    Chinese Exclusion Law
    All Chinese workers banned from the U.S: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 suspends immigration of Chinese laborers under penalty of imprisonment and deportation. Prohibited entry to all Chinese people except teachers, students, merchants, tourists, and officials. This was the first and only federal law restricting immigration based upon nationality and race. The Act was repealed in 1943.
  • Tape Decision

    Tape Decision
    Tape decision provides Asian Americans access to schools leading to segregated schools for Chinese in California.
  • Mexican Americans "Not White"

    Mexican Americans "Not White"
    Texas courts declare Mexican Americans "not white"
  • More Asian Segregation in Schools

    More Asian Segregation in Schools
    San Francisco School Board creates segregated schools for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students.
  • Non-English Instruction a Criminal Offense

    Non-English Instruction a Criminal Offense
    Texas makes it a criminal offense to use any language but English in school instruction.
  • Mongolians and some Caucasians not "White"

    Mongolians and some Caucasians not "White"
    U.S. Supreme Court rules Takao Ogawa "not white," threrefore, ineligible for citizenship. Justice George Sutherland found that only Caucasians were white, and therefore the Japanese, by not being Caucasian, were not white and instead were members of an "unassimilable race," lacking provisions in any Naturalization Act. Within three months, Sutherland carried a similarly disfavorable ruling on another Supreme Court case concerning another alien from a Sikh immigrant from Punjab region in India
  • Mississippi Segregates Chinese Students

    Mississippi Segregates Chinese Students
    Mississippi segregates Chinese students from white students
  • LULAC Supports Bilingual Education

    LULAC Supports Bilingual Education
    League of United Latin Citizens (LULAC) supports bilingual instruction and maintenance of Mexican culture.
  • Segregation of Mexican American Education

    Segregation of Mexican American Education
    Texas courts uphold right to segregate Mexican Americans for educational purposes.
  • Mexican Americans are Indians!

    Mexican Americans are Indians!
    California law allows school segregation of Mexican Americans as Indians.
  • Internment of Japanese Americans

    Internment of Japanese Americans
    1941 - 1945 Internment of Japanese Americans in concentration camps including native-born citizens during WWII.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act Rescinded

    Chinese Exclusion Act Rescinded
    Congress rescinds Chinese Exclusion Act and grants Chinese the right to naturalized citizenship.
  • Toward Desegregation

    Toward Desegregation
    Mendez v. School District of Orange County: Mexican Americans declared not Indians, making segregation illegal in California.
  • School Segregation Made Illegal in Texas

    School Segregation Made Illegal in Texas
    LULAC attorneys filed the "Delgado vs. Bastrop I.S.D. Lawsuit" which ended the segregation of Mexican American children in Texas. School segregation in Texas declared illegal.
  • 1790 Naturalization Act Updated

    1790 Naturalization Act Updated
    McCarran-Walter Act: Racial restrictions rescinded from 1790 Naturalization Act.
  • Asian Discrimination Ends

    Asian Discrimination Ends
    Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Immigration Act, ending discrimination against Asians.
  • Bilingual Education Act

    Bilingual Education Act
  • Mexican Americans Recognized in School System

    Mexican Americans Recognized in School System
    Cisneros v. Corpus Christi: 1954 Brown decision applied to segregation of Mexican Americans.
  • Lau v. Nichols

    Lau v. Nichols
    U.S. Supreme Court requires that schools provide special help to students whose first language is not English.