• 3000 BCE

    Units of measuremen

    Units of measuremen
    Units of measurement are developed in the major Bronze Age civilisations: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Elam and the Indus Valley. The Indus Valley may have been the major innovator on this, as the first measurement devices (rulers, protractors, weighing scales) were invented in Lothal in Gujarat, India.
  • 2000 BCE


    Ancient Egyptians study anatomy, as recorded in the Edwin Smith Papyrus. They identified the heart and its vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, hypothalamus, uterus, and bladder, and correctly identified that blood vessels emanated from the heart (however, they also believed that tears, urine, and semen, but not saliva and sweat, originated in the heart, see Cardiocentric hypothesis).
  • 500 BCE

    method of exhaustion

    method of exhaustion
    Antiphon discovers the method of exhaustion, foreshadowing the concept of a limit.
  • 460

    Empedocles describes thermal expansion.

    Empedocles describes thermal expansion.
    Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change its shape, area, volume, and density in response to a change in temperature, usually not including phase transitions
  • 628

    arithmetic rules

    arithmetic rules
    Brahmagupta states the arithmetic rules for addition, subtraction, and multiplication with zero, as well as the multiplication of negative numbers, extending the basic rules for the latter found in the earlier The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art.
  • Jan 1, 1543

    First scientific revolution

    First scientific revolution
    Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, Leibniz and others radically changed the European conception of the world, breaking the Aristotelian molds of the Middle Ages. he started in astronomy, physics, mathematics and medicine.
  • Refractive telescope

    Refractive telescope
    Galileo builds the refractive telescope.
  • Johannes Kepler: first two laws of planetary motion

    Johannes Kepler: first two laws of planetary motion
    The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
    A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
  • Importance of science on nature

    Importance of science on nature
    Francis Bacón argues that science was capable of giving human beings control over nature.
  • Appearance of the first compound microscopes in Europe

    Appearance of the first compound microscopes in Europe
    uses visible light and a system of lenses to generate magnified images of small objects.
  • William Harvey: blood circulation

    William Harvey: blood circulation
    The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
  • Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer

    Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer
    A mercury barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure in a certain location and has a vertical glass tube closed at the top sitting in an open mercury-filled basin at the bottom. Since higher temperature levels around the instrument will reduce the density of the mercury, the scale for reading the height of the mercury is adjusted to compensate for this effect.
  • Robert Hooke: discovers the cell

    Robert Hooke: discovers the cell
    the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms.
  • Francesco Redi: disproved idea of spontaneous generation

    Francesco Redi: disproved idea of spontaneous generation
    He was the first person to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies
  • fosils

    1669 – Nicholas Steno: Proposes that fossils are organic remains embedded in layers of sediment, basis of stratigraphy
  • Ole Rømer: first measurement of the speed of light

    Ole Rømer: first measurement of the speed of light
    Though this speed is most commonly associated with light, it is also the speed at which all massless particles and field perturbations travel in vacuum, including electromagnetic radiation (of which light is a small range in the frequency spectrum) and gravitational waves.
  • laws of motion

    laws of motion
    Sir Isaac Newton: classical mathematical description of the fundamental force of universal gravitation and the three physical laws of motion
  • Mathematization of knowledge and experimental methodology reached the other sciences:

    Mathematization of knowledge and experimental methodology reached the other sciences:
    Mathematization of knowledge and experimental methodology reached the other sciences: Chemistry, Biology, Geology and social sciences.
  • beginning of modern chemistry

    beginning of modern chemistry
    Antoine Lavoisier: law of conservation of mass, basis for chemistry, and the beginning of modern chemistry
  • Hanaoka Seishū: develops general anaesthesia

    Hanaoka Seishū: develops general anaesthesia
    General anesthesia suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation, using either injected or inhaled drugs.
  • Science and techno science.

    Science and techno science.
    Differentiation of the sciences and their corresponding techno-sciences.
  • electromagnetism

    Hans Christian Ørsted discovers that a current passed through a wire will deflect the needle of a compass, establishing a deep relationship between electricity and magnetism
  • rust

    Michael Faraday and James Stoddart discover alloying iron with chromium produces a stainless steel resistant to oxidising elements
  • Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction

    Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction
    Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
  • plants are made of cells

    plants are made of cells
    Matthias Schleiden: discover all plants are made of cells
  • Conservation of energy

    Conservation of energy
    James Prescott Joule: Law of Conservation of energy (First law of thermodynamics), also 1847 – Helmholtz, Conservation of energyIn physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant; it is said to be conserved over time.This law, first proposed and tested by Émilie du Châtelet,
  • steal

    Robert Forester Mushet develops a process for the decarbonisation, and re-carbonisation of iron, thorough the addition of a calculated quantity of spiegeleisen, to produce cheap, consistently high quality steel.
  • origin of cells

    origin of cells
    Rudolf Virchow: cells can only arise from pre-existing cells
  • evolution theory

    evolution theory
    Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace: Theory of evolution by natural selection
  • Louis Pasteur: Germ theory

    Louis Pasteur: Germ theory
    The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory for many diseases. It states that microorganisms known as pathogens or "germs" can lead to disease.
  • Greenhouse Effect

    Greenhouse Effect
    John Tyndall: Experiments in Radiant Energy that reinforced the Greenhouse Effect
  • Alloy

    Robert Forester Mushet discovers alloying steel with tungsten produces a harder, more durable alloy.
  • Dmitri Mendeleev: Periodic table

    Dmitri Mendeleev: Periodic table
    The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. The structure of the table shows periodic trends.
  • Rayleigh scattering

    Rayleigh scattering
    Lord Rayleigh: Diffuse sky radiation explains why sky appears blue
  • Hopkinson effect

    Hopkinson effect
    John Hopkinson develops Three-phase electrical supplies, mathematically proves how multiple AC dynamos can be connected in parallel, improves permanent magnets, and dynamo efficiency, by the addition of tungsten, and describes how temperature effects magnetism
  • Etudes de dynamique chimique

    Etudes de dynamique chimique
    Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff: discovered the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions
  • Virus

    Dmitri Ivanovsky discovers viruses
  • XRay

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers x-rays
  • Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity

    Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity
    the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation. A material containing unstable nuclei is considered radioactive.
  • cathode rays

    cathode rays
    J.J. Thomson discovers the electron in cathode rays
  • tne name of virus is invented

    tne name of virus is invented
    Martinus Beijerinck: concluded a virus infectious—replicating in the host—and thus not a mere toxin and gave it the name "virus"
  • Internalist conception of science

    The first two thirds of the 20th century there is an internalist conception of science. logical positivism and Karl Popper's approach, shared that: science produces true knowledge
    thanks to the fact that it uses a certain method to relate facts and theories.
  • Walther Nernst: Third law of thermodynamics

    Walther Nernst: Third law of thermodynamics
    A system's entropy approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero.
  • electron

    Robert Andrews Millikan: conducts the oil drop experiment and determines the charge on an electron
  • black holes

    black holes
    Karl Schwarzschild: discovery of the Schwarzschild radius leading to the identification of black holes
  • sun

    Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: Discovery of the composition of the Sun and that hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe
  • Period of macroscience or big science.

    In the decade of the 30s until the 50s the period of macro-science or big science occurs. The concept refers to research carried out by large facilities that house instruments, generally very complex, that are used for the development of experiments by a very large group of scientists, engineers and technical personnel.
  • neutron

    James Chadwick: Discovery of the neutron. The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol
    , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms.
  • Penicillin as a medical advance

    Penicillin as a medical advance
    Penicillin was the great medical breakthrough of WWII
    Worldwide, but nuclear research opened wide fields of research for physicists, chemists, doctors and biologists with the essential collaboration of engineers and technologists.
  • Manhattan Project

    Manhattan Project
    The Manhattan project was the starting point of the Techno-scientific revolution in techno-physics.
  • Techno chemistry

    Techno chemistry
    Nylon elaboration project by the Du Pont company.
  • ENIAC project

    ENIAC project
    Initiation of the project and improvement of the ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer.
  • EDVAC project

    EDVAC project
    Electronic discrete variable automatic computer. that it was the first computer in the current sense of the word since it handled binary information; the program that ordered the execution of
    calculations were stored on the same machine, the original idea of ​​what we now call software.
  • Review of the techno-scientific-technology policy.

    Review of the techno-scientific-technology policy.
    Feeling of need for a review of the techno-scientific-technology policy. The world witnessed a succession of disasters related to science and technology, especially since the late 1950s: dumping of polluting waste, nuclear accidents in civil and military reactors, poisonings with pharmaceutical products, oil spills, etc. All this only confirmed the need to review science-technology policy
  • non-secret encryptio

    James H. Ellis proposed the possibility of "non-secret encryption", more commonly termed public-key cryptography, a concept that would be implemented by his GCHQ colleague Clifford Cocks in 1973, in what would become known as the RSA algorithm, with key exchange added by a third colleague Malcolm J. Williamson, in 1975.
  • water on mars

    water on mars
    Traces of liquid water discovered on Mars (Since refuted in NASA report from 2017
  • water in the moon

    water in the moon
    NASA and SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory of Infrared Astronomy) discovered about 12oz of surface water in one of the moon's largest visible craters.
  • covid vaccine

    covid vaccine
    In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, biotechnology companies, national governments, and universities work to accelerate progression to an effective COVID-19 vaccine.