• 3000 BCE

# Units of measuremen

Units of measurement are developed in the major Bronze Age civilisations: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Elam and the Indus Valley. The Indus Valley may have been the major innovator on this, as the first measurement devices (rulers, protractors, weighing scales) were invented in Lothal in Gujarat, India.
• 2000 BCE

# Anatomy

Ancient Egyptians study anatomy, as recorded in the Edwin Smith Papyrus. They identified the heart and its vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, hypothalamus, uterus, and bladder, and correctly identified that blood vessels emanated from the heart (however, they also believed that tears, urine, and semen, but not saliva and sweat, originated in the heart, see Cardiocentric hypothesis).
• 500 BCE

# method of exhaustion

Antiphon discovers the method of exhaustion, foreshadowing the concept of a limit.
• 460

# Empedocles describes thermal expansion.

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change its shape, area, volume, and density in response to a change in temperature, usually not including phase transitions
• 628

# arithmetic rules

Brahmagupta states the arithmetic rules for addition, subtraction, and multiplication with zero, as well as the multiplication of negative numbers, extending the basic rules for the latter found in the earlier The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art.
• Jan 1, 1543

# First scientific revolution

Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, Leibniz and others radically changed the European conception of the world, breaking the Aristotelian molds of the Middle Ages. he started in astronomy, physics, mathematics and medicine.
• # Refractive telescope

Galileo builds the refractive telescope.
• # Johannes Kepler: first two laws of planetary motion

The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
• # Importance of science on nature

Francis Bacón argues that science was capable of giving human beings control over nature.
• # Appearance of the first compound microscopes in Europe

uses visible light and a system of lenses to generate magnified images of small objects.
• # William Harvey: blood circulation

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
• # Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer

A mercury barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure in a certain location and has a vertical glass tube closed at the top sitting in an open mercury-filled basin at the bottom. Since higher temperature levels around the instrument will reduce the density of the mercury, the scale for reading the height of the mercury is adjusted to compensate for this effect.
• # Robert Hooke: discovers the cell

the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms.
• # Francesco Redi: disproved idea of spontaneous generation

He was the first person to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies
• # fosils

1669 – Nicholas Steno: Proposes that fossils are organic remains embedded in layers of sediment, basis of stratigraphy
• # Ole Rømer: first measurement of the speed of light

Though this speed is most commonly associated with light, it is also the speed at which all massless particles and field perturbations travel in vacuum, including electromagnetic radiation (of which light is a small range in the frequency spectrum) and gravitational waves.
• # laws of motion

Sir Isaac Newton: classical mathematical description of the fundamental force of universal gravitation and the three physical laws of motion
• # Mathematization of knowledge and experimental methodology reached the other sciences:

Mathematization of knowledge and experimental methodology reached the other sciences: Chemistry, Biology, Geology and social sciences.
• # beginning of modern chemistry

Antoine Lavoisier: law of conservation of mass, basis for chemistry, and the beginning of modern chemistry
• # Hanaoka Seishū: develops general anaesthesia

General anesthesia suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation, using either injected or inhaled drugs.
• # Science and techno science.

Differentiation of the sciences and their corresponding techno-sciences.
• # electromagnetism

Hans Christian Ørsted discovers that a current passed through a wire will deflect the needle of a compass, establishing a deep relationship between electricity and magnetism
• # rust

Michael Faraday and James Stoddart discover alloying iron with chromium produces a stainless steel resistant to oxidising elements
• # Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.
• # plants are made of cells

Matthias Schleiden: discover all plants are made of cells
• # Conservation of energy

James Prescott Joule: Law of Conservation of energy (First law of thermodynamics), also 1847 – Helmholtz, Conservation of energyIn physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant; it is said to be conserved over time.This law, first proposed and tested by Émilie du Châtelet,
• # steal

Robert Forester Mushet develops a process for the decarbonisation, and re-carbonisation of iron, thorough the addition of a calculated quantity of spiegeleisen, to produce cheap, consistently high quality steel.
• # origin of cells

Rudolf Virchow: cells can only arise from pre-existing cells
• # evolution theory

Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace: Theory of evolution by natural selection
• # Louis Pasteur: Germ theory

The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory for many diseases. It states that microorganisms known as pathogens or "germs" can lead to disease.
• # Greenhouse Effect

John Tyndall: Experiments in Radiant Energy that reinforced the Greenhouse Effect
• # Alloy

Robert Forester Mushet discovers alloying steel with tungsten produces a harder, more durable alloy.
• # Dmitri Mendeleev: Periodic table

The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. The structure of the table shows periodic trends.
• # Rayleigh scattering

Lord Rayleigh: Diffuse sky radiation explains why sky appears blue
• # Hopkinson effect

John Hopkinson develops Three-phase electrical supplies, mathematically proves how multiple AC dynamos can be connected in parallel, improves permanent magnets, and dynamo efficiency, by the addition of tungsten, and describes how temperature effects magnetism
• # Etudes de dynamique chimique

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff: discovered the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions
• # Virus

Dmitri Ivanovsky discovers viruses
• # XRay

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers x-rays
• # Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity

the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation. A material containing unstable nuclei is considered radioactive.
• # cathode rays

J.J. Thomson discovers the electron in cathode rays
• # tne name of virus is invented

Martinus Beijerinck: concluded a virus infectious—replicating in the host—and thus not a mere toxin and gave it the name "virus"
• # Internalist conception of science

The first two thirds of the 20th century there is an internalist conception of science. logical positivism and Karl Popper's approach, shared that: science produces true knowledge
thanks to the fact that it uses a certain method to relate facts and theories.
• # Walther Nernst: Third law of thermodynamics

A system's entropy approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero.
• # electron

Robert Andrews Millikan: conducts the oil drop experiment and determines the charge on an electron
• # black holes

Karl Schwarzschild: discovery of the Schwarzschild radius leading to the identification of black holes
• # sun

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: Discovery of the composition of the Sun and that hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe
• # Period of macroscience or big science.

In the decade of the 30s until the 50s the period of macro-science or big science occurs. The concept refers to research carried out by large facilities that house instruments, generally very complex, that are used for the development of experiments by a very large group of scientists, engineers and technical personnel.
• # neutron

James Chadwick: Discovery of the neutron. The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol
n
or
n0
, which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Protons and neutrons constitute the nuclei of atoms.
• # Penicillin as a medical advance

Penicillin was the great medical breakthrough of WWII
Worldwide, but nuclear research opened wide fields of research for physicists, chemists, doctors and biologists with the essential collaboration of engineers and technologists.
• # Manhattan Project

The Manhattan project was the starting point of the Techno-scientific revolution in techno-physics.
• # Techno chemistry

Nylon elaboration project by the Du Pont company.
• # ENIAC project

Initiation of the project and improvement of the ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer.
• # EDVAC project

Electronic discrete variable automatic computer. that it was the first computer in the current sense of the word since it handled binary information; the program that ordered the execution of
calculations were stored on the same machine, the original idea of ​​what we now call software.
• # Review of the techno-scientific-technology policy.

Feeling of need for a review of the techno-scientific-technology policy. The world witnessed a succession of disasters related to science and technology, especially since the late 1950s: dumping of polluting waste, nuclear accidents in civil and military reactors, poisonings with pharmaceutical products, oil spills, etc. All this only confirmed the need to review science-technology policy
• # non-secret encryptio

James H. Ellis proposed the possibility of "non-secret encryption", more commonly termed public-key cryptography, a concept that would be implemented by his GCHQ colleague Clifford Cocks in 1973, in what would become known as the RSA algorithm, with key exchange added by a third colleague Malcolm J. Williamson, in 1975.
• # water on mars

Traces of liquid water discovered on Mars (Since refuted in NASA report from 2017
• # water in the moon

NASA and SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory of Infrared Astronomy) discovered about 12oz of surface water in one of the moon's largest visible craters.
• # covid vaccine

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, biotechnology companies, national governments, and universities work to accelerate progression to an effective COVID-19 vaccine.