Progression of English Language

  • Period: 55 BCE to 600

    England before the English

  • 44 BCE

    Julius Caesar

    Attempts to invade Britain (100-44 BC)
    Initial Roman raids begin.
  • 410

    Roman Legions Withdrawal begins

    Invasions from: Picts- North, Scots- West, Jutes & Saxon- Southeast claiming more than half the country.
    Celts were pushed out.
  • Period: 450 to 1150

    Old English- Anglo Saxon English

  • 597

    St. Augustine Arrives in Britian

    Christian conversion of the Anglo-Saxon begins.
  • Oct 10, 1066

    Battle of Hastings

    Battle of Hastings
    English aristocracy replaced by Norman aristocracy. English lost status and became language of lower classes.
    Image (Hohenbary, 2019).
  • Period: 1100 to 1500

    Middle English

  • Period: 1201 to 1399

    Language Instruction Transition

    French language is no longer being instructed to children of nobility. English replaced it.
  • 1204

    Turning Point

    King John lost hold of Normandy province to France
  • Period: 1337 to 1453

    Hundred Years War

    The quest for control led to war between the French and English, eventually leading to English becoming the taught language as French was no longer needed.
  • Period: 1348 to 1351

    The Black Death

    One third of British people die, lower class language (English) used more widely.
  • 1362

    French replaced with English as language of the law

    English is used in English Parliament for first time
  • 1385

    English replaces Latin

    Schools instruct in English with the exception of Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
  • 1450

    Great Vowel Shift begins

    Great Vowel Shift begins
    Image (Giancarlo, 2001).
  • 1476

    Beginning of the End

    Beginning of the End
    William Caxton introduces the first English printing press which led to the standardization of the English language.
    Image (Gao & Gurd, 2019).
  • 1492

    America Discovered

    Colonization began and the English language began it's struggle toward becoming a global language.
  • Period: 1500 to

    Early Modern English- Shakespearean English

    Germanic at core has an extensive Roman vocabulary. Complexities of the Old English have disappeared.
  • 1509

    Cutting Ties

    Henry VIII cut links to Rome and Catholic Church.
  • William Shakespeare's 1st plays

    William Shakespeare's 1st plays
    Shakespeare wrote poems and plays, adding over 2000 words to the language to enhance his writings. Shakespeare dies in 1616.
    Image (Jimenez, 2020).
  • Period: to

    End of Great Vowel shift

    Seven long vowels raised (where they were stressed in the mouth) and two dropped out, meaning they became double vowels (diphthongs).
  • King James Bible Published

    The Bible being published has a large impact on the English language, since Christianity was the predominant religion and more people now had access to it in written form.
  • Period: to

    Present Day English