Post-Romanticism (1890-1930)

  • Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)

    Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
    Viennese, considered the heir to Mozart and Beethoven.
    Utilized the aspects of music of non-western cultures.
  • Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

    Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
    Most important French composer of the 20th century and credited with composing the first modern orchestral work. Composed the famous piece, "Prelude to 'The Afternoon of a Faun," which was a tone poem based on the symbolist Stéphane Mallarmé's poem.
  • Richard Strauss (1864-1949)

    Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
    German, supported Wagner's use of chromaticism, and famous for tone poems and operas. Strauss composed two operas called Salome (1905) and Elektra (1909).
  • Maurice Ravel (1876-1937)

    Maurice Ravel (1876-1937)
    Ravel was credited with writing the first impressionist piano piece.
  • Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)

    Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
    In 1902 his father died and he met Rimsky-Korsakov, studied privately with him for 3 years. In 1909, began collaborating with Sergei Diaghilev. Stravinsky's overall style consisted of: ostinati, harsh, rhythmically complex, essentially tonal, and self-borrowing.
  • Period: to


    use of pentatonic, whole tone, and other exotic scales
    unresolved dissonances
    parallel chords
    free rhythm
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    extreme chromaticism
    extreme sizes of performances
    extreme use of themes and motives
    thick textures
  • Period: to


    focused on completely freeing music from tonality
    12-tone method introduced by Arnold Schoenberg
  • Primitivism

    it alludes to specific stylistic elements of tribal objects