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Photography as an Art Form

  • Temperance in France

    In the 19th century, Temperance in France was thought of as inappropriate because in Church it's frowned upon to drink too much alcohol and it's called evil. Another reason is a women's movement which described alcohol to be a negative booster for "partner violence, child neglect and loss of wages" ("Alcohol").
  • Royal Navy

    The Royal Navy is a "naval military organization of the United Kingdom, charged as a defense at sea, protection of shipping, and fulfillment of international military agreements" ("Editors"). During the 19th Century, the navy helped enforce the long period of peace from a balance of power between the European states that depended on the use of British maritime which known as the Pax Britannia ("Editors").
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    Work Cited

    Marien, Mary Warner. Photography: A Cultural History. Upper Saddle River: Pearson,
    2015. Print. “Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Sept. 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan–Korea_Treaty_of_1905. “United States Expedition to Korea.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Aug. 2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_expedition_to_Korea. “Gapsin Coup.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Oct. 2018, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gapsin_Coup.
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    Work Cited

    “Alcohol in the 19th Century (And Emergence of Temperance).” Alcohol Problems & Solutions, 5 Oct. 2019, https://www.alcoholproblemsandsolutions.org/alcohol-in-the-19th-century/. Kim, Kirsteen, and Hoon Ko. “Who Brought the Gospel to Korea? Koreans Did.” Christian History | Learn the History of Christianity & the Church, Christian History, 30 July 2019, https://www.christianitytoday.com/history/2018/february/korean-christianity.html.
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    Work Cited

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Royal Navy.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 31 Jan. 2019, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Royal-Navy. “Korea's Queen Min Killed by Japanese Assassins: History Channel on Foxtel.” History Channel, 9 June 2017, https://www.historychannel.com.au/this-day-in-history/koreas-queen-min-killed-by-japanese-assassins/.
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    Work Cited

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “First Sino-Japanese War.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 25 July 2019, https://www.britannica.com/event/First-Sino-Japanese-War-1894-1895.
  • Catholicism in Korea

    Yi, a Baptized aristocrat from China, brought the teachings of Catholicism and formed the first Christian community in Korea. Korea had a rule that non-Confucius teachings were banned; the government soon found out and killed a local Korean for practicing. In 1795, a Chinese priest came to Korea and was introduced to a unmarried women who soon was tortured and beheaded for protecting the priest, which was called the Sinyu Persecution of 1801. By then, Catholicism was illegal nationwide (Kim).
  • Wedgewood and Davy

    Thomas Wedgewood and Humphrey Davy were two chemists that experimented with capturing the image of the camera obscura, how to fix shadows that appear on the object of the image seen on paper that had been in a light sensitive immersion of silver nitrate (Marien, p.9). They figured out that the obscura experiment failed: while shadowed images of objects left an imprint, since the nitrate continued to be exposed to light, the print's surface darkened until that mark disappeared (p.9).
  • Joseph Nicéphore Nicépce

    Joseph Nicéphore Nicépce
    Nicépce was interested in machinery, which led him to the interest of Lithography, but since he had no luck with that art form, he looked at the possibilities to make an image appear on photo-sensitive materials instead (Marien, p.10). After failing with only creating a negative, he switched to engraving onto plates, which had the necessary effect, that worked to keep the dark and light tones where they should be, and created a positive of the obscured image.
  • William Fox Talbot

    William Fox Talbot
    Talbot, a multitalented, British scientist, scholar, and linguist, who created a process to keep an image permanent on paper, by using table salt to stop the process of exposure to light - called a photogenic drawing (Marien, p.19). Through multiple tries afterward, it eventually became the process called the Calotype in 1841.
  • The Daguerreotype

    The Daguerreotype
    Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre a multi-talented man in the arts, was introduced to Joseph Nicéphore Niéce who collaborated with Daguerre to invent what's known today as the photographic process called the Daguerrotype.
  • Mathew Brady

    Mathew Brady
    Most famously remembered for his battlefield photographs, Brady depicted soldiers during the war; his philosophy was that "history is made by great persons, not abstract historical forces or political controversies" (Marien, p.104). He is also known for making imagery of celebrity figures such as Abraham Lincoln.
  • Calotype

    Calotype
    In 1841, Fox Talbot perfected a way to create multiple copies of the same image using the photogenic drawing as a template (Marien, p.20). It was called the Calotype. Similar to the Daguerrotype, it had to be made like a latent image but it is then turned into a negative and from there can be produced many times over.
  • The Calotype Club

    This association founded in London, is all about being "associated together for the purpose of pursuing their experiments in this art-science..." (Marien, p.24).
  • Roger Fenton

    Roger Fenton
    Robert Fenton, a British war photographer, was one of the few who captured war scenes when it was still a new type of photography. He made his war imagery heroic, void of graphic bodies or the like. In the image here, he uses symbols to represent the happenings of war in a poetic way that still reads what kind of situations he must have witnessed on the battlefield.
  • Julia Margaret Cameron

    Julia Margaret Cameron
    One of the first well known female photographers, Cameron didn't start her career until her early 20's; she "produced images to ennoble photography and to secure for it the character and uses of High Art by combining the real and ideal and sacrificing nothing of Truth by all possible devotion to Poetry and beauty" (Marien, p.92). The partially out-of-focus aesthetic is a part of her style of photography, and references Pictorialism.
  • Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter by Alexander Gardner

    Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter by Alexander Gardner
    A soldier and photographer, Alexander Gardner, took many photographs which "featured death and destruction" (Marien, p.108). The Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter was reconstructed to better fit the scene of Gardener's choice; he even moved the body, and added props like the gun, to a different location away from the battlefield, to reflect the wistful end of the career of a soldier in the 'front lines'.
  • United States Expedition to Korea

    United States Expedition to Korea
    An expedition near Ganghwa Island intended to know about the whereabouts of the United States' American diplomatic delegation for a trade and relations partnership with Korea as well as if their sailors and merchant ship was still in tack, turned to an unprepared attack plan of attack. The U.S. navy and land forces retaliated and killed 200 Koreans with only 3 dead Americans based on a cultural misunderstanding. This resulted in U.S. leaving peacefully when negations weren't going to be made.
  • Gapsin Coup

    A Failed 3-day Coup that occurred during 1884 in Korea. It initiated an immediate change to the country and abolish the rights that the yangban (ministers) class had over Korean reformers. With the aid of the Japanese, the coup was underway and they had Seoul under their control, but a Chinese garrison was stationed in Korea, that ultimately took out the Pro-Japanese members and they fled in exile while in turn, informal chinese domination became the end result 1885-1894 (Gapsin).
  • Poling the Marsh-Hay by Peter Henry Emerson

    Poling the Marsh-Hay by Peter Henry Emerson
    Scientist to artist, British photographer, Peter Henry Emerson, was one to say "the camera is capable of making art through transcribing the physical reality" (Marien, p.169). In this photograph, Emerson is emphasizing the constant relationship the people have to the land, but not in reference to tourism imagery (p.169).
  • George Eastman

    George Eastman
    The creator of the Kodak camera in 1888, George Eastman thought of a more simplified way to photograph a scene. "You press the button - we do the rest" (Marien, p.166), coined the Eastman Dry Plate Company - a revolutionary way to quick and effortlessly capture an image with just a shutter and a fixed focus, which made it easy for any middle-class customer to use the now portable camera. Eastman also invented a rolled-on light sensitive material that is coated on paper to replace the plate.
  • Linked Ring

    Linked Ring
    British association called the Linked Ring, formed in 1892 with 15 founders including Henry Peach Robinson and George Davison. The "Links" thought of themselves as a spiritual and aesthetic fellowship with a focus on exhibiting works with similar styles as that of James Craig Anan for example (Marien, p.175).
  • First Sino-Japanese War

    Japan and China were at war fighting for the domination of Korea, between the Modernistic tact of Japan gathering the young Koreans' support, and China asking for support from the royal family. By 1894, Japan was overall more successful, and made arrangements to let China trade with them as a compromise ("Editors").
  • Emuli Incident

    The murder of Empress Myeongseong, the last Empress of Korea, in1895 by a group of Japanese assassins at Gyeongbokgung Palace: it was said that the assassins were able to discard the intense security, and killed her along with some court ladies. Since Korea was allies with Russia, the Crown Prince was able to take refuge with them until he took the throne, although Japan over-powered them in the end ("Korea's")..
  • Fredrick H. Evans

    Fredrick H. Evans
    Fredrick H. Evans, a contemporary pictorialist photographer who rejected the common use of special lenses and manipulation to negatives, instead was interested in the relationship between light, space, and shadow of interiors of architecture to express the emotional response to art photography (Marien, p.179). The 'Steps to Chapter House: A Sea of Steps' is one such photo, which emphasized this new rendition of Pictorialism and later may be in part, a contributor to Straight Photography.
  • Japan-Korean Treaty of 1905

    Japan-Korean Treaty of 1905
    Ito Hirobumi, a Japanese politician, visited Hanseong Korea to demand that Gojong, the Korean emperor, sign a treaty with Japan. Gojong refused more than once, and in response, Ito surrounded the palace with Japanese soldiers and threatening to hurt Korea's Prime Minister. So he eventually relented to force and signed the treaty. This gave Imperial Japan complete control over Korea's trading port and foreign affairs, and enslaved the Korean citizens under their rule (“Japan–Korea”).
  • Alfred Stiegliz

    Alfred Stiegliz
    An innovative historical figure to the creation of photography, Alfred Stieglitz was very successful with the Photo-Secession movement and as a talented artist in making his work personal and about his life. In 1902, The Photo-Secession was a community space for exhibitions of pictorialists to display work every so often and to connect American artists (Marien, p.178).The Steerage, is an infamous image that is considered to be his best work of blending daily life and symbolism (180-181).
  • The Onion Field By George Davison

    The Onion Field By George Davison
    British photographer George Davison, shifts the scientific recording principle of photography to an artistic style with the Onion Field. He called such an image an impressionistic photograph because it "...rendered a person's response to the subject" (Marien, p.171). The image, according to Marien, is unclear as to what is in focus and what isn't. The viewer has no foot-hold onto a centered area to study the photo except the building in the background.