Signing of the Treaty of Paris1763
10 February Signing of the Treaty of Paris
Ending the Seven Year’s War, also known as the French and Indian War in North America. France ceded all mainland North American territories, except New Orleans, in order to retain her Caribbean sugar islands. Britain gained all territory east of the Mississippi River; Spain kept territory west of the Mississippi, but exchanged East and West Florida for Cuba.
Proclamation of 17631763
Proclamation of 1763
Wary of the cost of defending the colonies, George III prohibited all settlement west of the Appalachian mountains without guarantees of security from local Native American nations. The intervention in colonial affairs offended the thirteen colonies' claim to the exclusive right to govern lands to their west.
The first attempt to finance the defence of the colonies by the British Government. In order to deter smuggling and to encourage the production of British rum, taxes on molasses were dropped; a levy was placed on foreign Madeira wine and colonial exports of iron, lumber and other goods had to pass first through Britain and British customs. The Act established a hear to smuggling cases without jury and with the presumption of guilt.These measures led to widespread protest
Seeking to defray some of the costs of the colonies, Parliament required all legal documents, newspapers and pamphlets required to use watermarked, or 'stamped' paper on which a levy was placed.
Colonial assemblies required to pay for supplies to British garrisons. The New York assembly argued that it could not be forced to comply.
Stamp Act Congress
Representatives from nine of the thirteen colonies declare the Stamp Act unconstitutional as it was a tax levied without their consent.
Parliament finalises the repeal of the Stamp Act, but declares that it has the right to tax colonies
Townshend Revenue Act (Townshend Duties)
Duties on tea, glass, lead, paper and paint to help pay for the administration of the colonies, John Dickinson publishes Letter from a Philadelphian Farmer in protest. Colonial assemblies condemn taxation without representation.
The British are coming1768
British troops arrive in Boston in response to political unrest.
Angered by the presence of troops and Britain's colonial policy, a crowd began harassing a group of soldiers guarding the customs house; a soldier was knocked down by a snowball and discharged his musket, sparking a volley into the crowd which kills five civilians.
In an effort to support the ailing East India Company, Parliament exempted its tea from import duties and allowed the Company to sell its tea directly to the colonies. Americans resented what they saw as an indirect tax subsidising a British company.
Boston Tea Party1773
Boston Tea Party
Angered by the Tea Acts, American patriots disguised as Mohawk Indians dump £9,000 of East India Company tea into the Boston harbour.
May to June
Four measures which stripped Massachusetts of self-government and judicial independence following the Boston Tea Party. The colonies responded with a general boycott of British goods.
Colonial delegates meet to organise opposition to the Intolerable Acts.
Battle of Lexington and Cocord1775
Battles of Lexington and Concord
First engagements of the Revolutionary War between British troops and the Minutemen, who had been warned of the attack by Paul Revere.
Continental Congress appoints George Washington commander-in-chief of Continental Army; issued $2 million bills of credit to fund the army.
Battle of Bunker Hill1775
Battle of Bunker Hill
The first major battle of the War of Independence. Sir William Howe dislodged William Prescott's forces overlooking Boston at a cost of 1054 British casualties to the Americans' 367.
Battle of Long Island and White Plains1776
August - December
Battles of Long Island and White Plains
British forces occupy New York after American defeats.
Battle of Trenton1776
Battle of Trenton, New Jersey, providing a boast to American morale.
British surrender of 5,700 troops at Saratoga.
Lacking supplies, 5,700 British, German and loyalist forces under Major General John Burgoyne surrender to Major General Horatio Gates in a turning point in the Revolutionary War.
Surrender of British1781
Surrender of British forces under Cornwallis at Yorktown.
Tready of Paris Endened1783
Treaty of Paris, formally ending the Revolutionary War