Modern Times (1900 CE to Present)

  • Red Cross

    Red Cross
    -An international organization that cares for the wounded, sick, and homeless in wartime, according to the terms of the Geneva Convention of 1864, and now also during and following natural disasters.
  • Indian National Congress

    Indian National Congress
    -Group of British-educated members who led India's nationalist movement.
    -Mohandas Gandhi was there greatest leader.
    -He practiced ahimsa (non-violence) and civil disobedience against unjust laws which effectively challenged the British.
  • Period: to

    1900 CE to Present

  • Mexican Civil War

    Mexican Civil War
    -In 1910, the Mexican people rose up against their dictator (Portifino Diaz), and a civil war ensued.
    -Many of the leaders, who were mestizos, wanted to break the control of the Creole elite.
    -leaders such as Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata advocated land reform.
    -Diaz lost the war, and Mexico has been dominated by one-party rule ever since (although recently another party won an election)
    -the single-party that ruled Mexico was known as the Party of Indstitutionalized Revolution (PRI).
  • Union of South Africa

    Union of South Africa
    -was formed in 1910 from former Brisish colonies, but the majority black population was granted no rights.
    -instead, segregation laws were enacted in a system known as the apartheid.
  • Revolution of 1911

    Revolution of 1911
    -The Revolution of 1911 was a revolution that overthrew China's last Imperial Dynasty, the Qing, and put the Guomindang (Chineese Nationalist Party) in power.
  • African National Congress

    African National Congress
    -an organized resitence to the opression the African's were facing from the white aristocracy in South Africa.
    -Nelson Mandela emerged from jail to become leader of the African National Congress, and he was the first freely elected president of South Africa.
  • Assasinaiton of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (Beggining of World War I)

    Assasinaiton of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria (Beggining of World War I)
    -Ferdinand was assasinated by a Serbian Slav nationalist by the name of Gavrilo Princip.
    -Austria accused Serbia of supporting Yugoslav (Southern Slavic) nationalism and declared war.
    -At this point, the war had officially begun.
  • Beggining of World War I

    Beggining of World War I
    -The causes of WWI were alliances (Allies and the Triple Entitie), imperialism (competition for colnial possesions), militarism (arms build ups from Germany and Britain), nationanalism (ethnic groups wanted independence), and the murder of the Austro-Hungarian heir (prince Ferdinand).
  • Russian Civil War

    Russian Civil War
  • Russian Revolution

    Russian Revolution
    -During World War I, Russia made a fatal decision to stay in the war; and food shortages, revolts, and continued strikes led to more disorder.
    -As a result of Russia's decision, the Bolsheviks came to power under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin
    - Vladimir Lenin promised peace, land, and bread; and he officially came to power and took control of the Russian government of November 8, 1917.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    -Treaty with Germany that ended Russia's part in the war.
    -Won popular support for the Bolshevik party amoung the peasants as they fulfilled their promise to the people (that they would withdraw from the war).
  • Establisment of the League of Naitons

    Establisment of the League of Naitons
    -the league of naitons was established in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1921.
    -the League of Nations was an intergovernmental organisation founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
    -It was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.
  • Treaty of Versailles (the end of World War II)

    Treaty of Versailles (the end of World War II)
    -The Treaty of Versailles laid down harsh terms for Germany, and forced them to pay massive war reperations.
    - It also redrew the map of Europe (Italy wasn't pleased), created new nations (Poland, Hungary, etc.), elavated the status of the United States to a world power, and called for self determination (leading to massive nationalist movements after World War II).
  • End of World War I

    End of World War I
  • Weimar Republic

    Weimar Republic
    -Germany had lost millions of troops in World War I and was forced to pay huge reparations to the Allies.
    -Germany lost all of its overseas empire, along with provinces on both its Eastern and Western borders.
    - As a result, the Kaiser abdicated, and the Weimer Republic was established
    - The Republic proved to be weak, but it was democratic with a president and chancellor.
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    -A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace.
    -It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League.
    - Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
  • New Economic Policy

    New Economic Policy
    -After the aftermath of World War I and the Civil War, a severe drought ocurred that resulted in widespread famine.
    -The effects of the two wars caused Lenin to take a more moderate course of action.
    -He instituted the New Economic Policy (NEP)
    -The NEP allowed peasants to sell their products, but the government still controlled banking, trade, and heavy industry.
  • Founding of the Chineese Communist Party

    Founding of the Chineese Communist Party
    -The Chinese Communist party was established in 1921.
    -This led to a new dynamic in the nation.
    -One party rule by the Guomindang (the Nationalists) was ended as China now had two competing parties.
  • The Fall of the Ottomans

    The Fall of the Ottomans
    -After losing in the first World War, the Ottoman Empire collapsed; and a new govenrment took its place in world politics.
    -The country of Turkey emerged in 1923 and formed a republic under the leadership Ataturk.
    -Ataturk proved to be an extremely able ruler, and he engaged in a program of modernization.
  • Reign of Benito Musolini

    Reign of Benito Musolini
    -was a facist totalitarian ruler
    -practiced ultra-nationalism and militarism, allied with big buisnesses, and rejected democracy completely which was viewed as weak and ineffective.
  • Chineese Civil War

    Chineese Civil War
    -For three years, the CCP and the Nationalist Guomindang (GMD) fought ecah other
    -The communists prevailed in 1949.
  • Five-Year Plans

    Five-Year Plans
    -Lenin died in 1924, and after a power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power and instituted the Five-Year Plans with the goal of increasing industrial and agricultural productivity.
    -Individual farms became collectivized, and agricultural productivity declined.
    -Industrial productivity increased however.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    -the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
    -it was global in scope and led to World War II and the rise of facism in Germany and Italy.
  • Great Purges

    Great Purges
    -Stalin tried and excuted thousands and millions were imprisoned.
    -It was a period in time of a tremendous amount of political oppression for the Russiian people.
  • Nazi Party and the Reign of Hitler

    Nazi Party and the Reign of Hitler
  • Second Sino-Japanese War

    Second Sino-Japanese War
    -War between Japan and China
    -Japan invaded China twice, and this rallied all of China to the defense of the nation
    -Chinese nationalists and communists alike tried to cooperate in their fight against the Japaneese, but there was still little trust.
  • Beggining of World War II

    Beggining of World War II
    -Out of all causes of World War II, the desire of Adolf Hitler, in control of Nazi Germany, to dominate Europe (especially agrarian lands in to the East of Germany) and resettle German farmers was paramount.
    -He was allied primarily with Japan (which desired to dominate East Asia, especially China), as well as Italy (which had its own ambitions).
  • The Ruling of Fulgencio Batista

    The Ruling of Fulgencio Batista
    -Fulgencio Batista ruled Cuba from 1940 to 1944
    -He was a dictator
    -Under his rule, a small percentage of the people were wealthy and the masses of peasants were quite poor.
  • Beggining of the Cold War

    Beggining of the Cold War
  • End of World War II

    End of World War II
    -the effects of World War II include the creation of a sole superpower (United States) and the rise of the Soviet Union (a great military power).
  • United Nations

    United Nations
    -An international organization composed of most of the countries of the world. It was founded in 1945 to promote peace, security, and economic development.
  • Nehru Ruling as Prime Minister of India

    Nehru Ruling as Prime Minister of India
    -came to power after India won independence from Great Britain
    -Initiated reforms in which the state took ownership of major indujstries, resources, transportation, and utilities, but local and retail businesses and farmland remained private.
    -Nehru advocated industrialization and engaged in nonalighnment during the Cold War.
  • NATO

  • People's Republic of China

    People's Republic of China
    -The communists prevailed over the nationalist in the civil war in 1949, and their leader, Mao Zedong, proclaimed the birth of the People's Republic of China from beijing as the nationalists fled to Taiwan to regroup.
    - Mao Zendong then nationalized all buisnesses, distributited land to the peasants, created a one-party totalitarian state, and instigated the teaching of communist idealogy in the Chineese educational system.
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    -was a war between the Republic of Korea (South Korea), supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), at one time supported by China and the Soviet Union. It was primarily the result of the political division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II.
    -it was a war fought between the communist north and the republican south
    -it ended in a stale mate.
  • Cuban Revolution

    Cuban Revolution
    -Fidel Castro, leader of the Cuban Revoluition, launched an all out assult on the dictator Fulgencio Batista
    -He organized a guerrila movement that was highly successful; and after he ousted the dictator, he acted as if he held open election but in actuality he was a totalitarian ruler
    -He claimed he wasnt a communist, but he engaged in collectivization, privatized buisness, gave free education and medical services, and established close ties with the USSR.
  • Destalinization Movement

    Destalinization Movement
    -movement which criticized Stalin's faults and encouraged more freedom of expression.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    -A protracted military conflict (1955-1975) between the Communist forces of North Vietnam supported by China and the Soviet Union and the non-Communist forces of South Vietnam supported by the United States.
    -Ho Chi Minh was the leader of the north, and he engaged in guirella warefare to oust the United States and to establish Vietnam as a communist country
  • The Gold Coast's Revolution

    The Gold Coast's Revolution
    -the first state in Africa to achieve independence was the Gold Coast which was later known as the country of Ghana.
    -Led by U.S.-educated Kwame Nkrumah, stikes and protests were used to remove the British from power.
  • OPEC

    -Is an international organization and economic cartel whose mission is to coordinate the policies of the oil-producing countries.
    -The goal is to secure a steady income to the member states and to collude in influencing world oil prices through economic means.
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    -The United states supported a group of cuban exiles who engaged in a failed invasion known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion
    -This led to more tensions between Cuba and the United States
  • Construction of the Berlin Wall

    Construction of the Berlin Wall
    -The Berlin Wall completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin.
    -The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany.
    -In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked East Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis

    Cuban Missle Crisis
    -A huge standoff that occured when Soviet missles were discovered in Cuba
    -The United States and the Soviet Union compromised, however, and war was avoided
  • Palestinian Liberaion Organization

    Palestinian Liberaion Organization
  • Cultural Revolution

    Cultural Revolution

  • The Rising Feminist Movement

    The Rising Feminist Movement
    -organized activity in support of women's rights and interests
    -women believed that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities.
  • Balfour Declaratoin of 1917

    Balfour Declaratoin of 1917
  • Iranian Revolution

    Iranian Revolution
    -Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi ruled iran from 1953 to 1979
    -He was heavily influenced by the west and westernized the country
    -this led to a fundementalist response and Ayatollah Khomeini led a revolution that ousted Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi.
    -Khomeini claimed he was divine, and he instigated a strict interpretation of the sharia throughout his new empire.
  • Poland's Solidarity Movement

    Poland's Solidarity Movement
    Solidarity is a Polish trade union federation that emerged on 31 August 1980 at the Gdańsk Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
    -It was the first non-Communist Party-controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country.
    -Solidarity reached as many as 9.5 million members
  • Reign of Chineese Ruler Deng Xiaoping

    Reign of Chineese Ruler Deng Xiaoping
    -Deng Xiaping came to power in 1976 and instituted a new program of economic modernization known as the Four Modernizations.
    -They were modernizations in the areas of industry, agriculture, technology, and national defense.
  • Tiananmen Square

    Tiananmen Square
    -In May of 1989, massive student demonstrations occurred in Tiananmen Square.
    -Students called for democratic reforms but instead were met with troops and tanks sent tor crush the rebellion.
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Fall of the Berlin Wall
  • End of the Cold War

    End of the Cold War
    -was marked by the fall of the Berlin wall.
    -communism was left behind and capitalism prevailed as it became the dominant force of the world
    -furthermore, Germany was reunified; and the powerful Soviet Union was dissoliving.
  • Gorbachev's Reign as Ruler of the Soviet Union

    Gorbachev's Reign as Ruler of the Soviet Union
    -instituted the policy of perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openess)
    -Perestoika marked the beginning of a market economy with limited free enterpise and some private propery which revolutionalized Russia.
    -Glasnost encouraged a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the Soviet System.
  • Bosnian Genocide

    Bosnian Genocide
    -The term Bosnian Genocide refers to either genocide at Srebrenica and Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995 or the ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of the Republika Srpska that took place during the 1992–1995 Bosnian War.
  • European Union

    European Union
  • Rwandan Genocide

    Rwandan Genocide
    -The Rwandan Genocide was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi and moderate Hutu in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority.
    - During the approximate 100-day period from April 7, 1994 to mid-July, an estimated 500,000–1,000,000 Rwandans were killed, constituting as much as 20% of the country's total population and 70% of the Tutsi then living in Rwanda.
  • World Trade Organization

    World Trade Organization
    -an international body concerned with promoting and regulating trade between its member states; established in 1995 as a successor to GATT
  • GATT

    -General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: a multilateral international treaty signed in 1947 to promote trade, esp by means of the reduction and elimination of tariffs and import quotas; replaced in 1995 by the World Trade Organization.
  • Kyoto Protocal

    Kyoto Protocal
    -In response to the threat posed by global warming, the United Nations held a convention on climate change.
    -This convention led ot the establishment of the Kyoto Protocal, an international enviromental treay with the goal of achieving the stabilization of greenhous gas concentrations in the atmosphere.
  • Boris Yetsin (The First President of Russia)

    Boris Yetsin (The First President of Russia)
    -Pushed for economic reform and fought against corruption and economic inequality.
    -Engaged in free market reforms.
    -Price controls were ended and privitization had begun.
    -As a result of these new policies, povery skyrocketed and Yelstin was forced to resign.
    -Putin then came into power.
  • Great Leap Forward

    Great Leap Forward
    -In order to increase agricultural and industrial producation, Mao instituted a new plan in the late 1950's known as the Great Leap Forward.
    -In the Great Leap Forward, which aimed to increase agricultural and industrial output, all life was to be collective-family houses were torn down, and commune life replaced..
    -It proved to be a complete failure.
  • Spanish Civil War

    Spanish Civil War
    -The Spanish Civil War was fought from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939 between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratically elected Spanish Republic, and the Nationalists, a rebel group led by General Francisco Franco.
    -The Nationalists prevailed, and Franco ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from 1939 until his death in 1975.