Interwar Period and WWII

  • Good Neighbor Policy

    In an effort to denounce past U.S. interventionism and subdue any subsequent fears of Latin Americans, Roosevelt on March 4, 1933 announced during his inaugural address that: "In the field of World policy, I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor."
  • FDR Declines London Economic Conference

    FDR refused to attend conference because he felt that his inflationary policies were helping the American economy recover. If he were to stablize US currency, he might not have been able to inflate anymore.
  • Roosevelt Recognizes USSR

    On November 16, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt ended almost 16 years of American non-recognition of the Soviet Union following a series of negotiations in Washington, D.C. with the Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Maxim Litvinov.
  • Tydings-McDuffie Act

    Self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence after 10 years
  • Reciprocal Trade Agreements

    The act not only gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the authority to adjust tariff rates, but also the power to negotiate bilateral trade agreements without receiving prior congressional approval.
  • Neutrality Act of 1935

    The 1935 act, signed on August 31, 1935, imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war. It also declared that American citizens travelling on warring ships travelled at their own risk.
  • Italy Invades Ethiopia

    Mussolini invaded Abyssinia (now Ethiopia) the African country situated on the horn of Africa.
  • US Neutrality Act of 1936

    The Neutrality Act of 1936, passed in February of that year, renewed the provisions of the 1935 act for another 14 months. It also forbade all loans or credits to belligerents.
  • Spanish Civil War

    The socialist and communists wanted more intense reforms, and tried revolution in 1934. Anarchist were always a real pain both when governing left parties or right parties. This lead to a huge clime of violence and when in 1936 the leader of the conservative party was killed by 2 members of the Guardia Civil (State Police Corp), Sanjurjo, Mola and Franco, important military and police leaders, decided to rebel against the republic. In April the war finished, with around 1 million people dead.
  • US Neutrality Act of 1937

    U.S. ships were prohibited from transporting any passengers or articles to belligerents, and U.S. citizens were forbidden from traveling on ships of belligerent nations. the President could permit the sale of materials and supplies to belligerents in Europe as long as the recipients arranged for the transport and paid immediately in cash.
  • Japan Invades China

    The Japanese Kwantung Army turned a small incident into a full-scale war. Chinese forces were unable to effectively resist the Japanese. The Japanese military was not only better armed and organized, they were also incredibly brutal.
  • Panay Incident

    The USS Panay incident was a Japanese attack on the American gunboat Panay while she was anchored in the Yangtze River outside Nanking.
  • Hitler Seizes Austria

    Hitler accompanied German troops into Austria, where enthusiastic crowds met them. Hitler appointed a new Nazi government, and on March 13 the Anschluss was proclaimed. Austria existed as a federal state of Germany until the end of World War II
  • Munich Conference

    The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future of the Sudetenland in the face of ethnic demands made by Adolf Hitler.
  • Hitler Seizes Czechoslovakia

    Czechoslovak president Emil Hácha traveled to Berlin and was left waiting, while orders to invade were already given. After meeting with Adolf Hitler he fainted and later was forced to sign his acceptance of the German occupation of the remainder of Bohemia and Moravia.
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Through the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Stalin and Hitler agreed not to go to war with each other and to split Poland between them.
  • WWII Begins w/ Poland

    On September 1, 1939, the beginning of the German attack, Great Britain and France sent Adolf Hitler an ultimatum - either withdraw German forces from Poland or Great Britain and France would go to war against Germany. On September 3, with Germany's forces penetrating deeper into Poland, Great Britain and France both declared war on Germany.
  • US Neutrality Act of 1939

    Allowed for arms trade with belligerent nations (Great Britain and France) on a cash-and-carry basis, thus in effect ending the arms embargo.
  • US Invokes First Peacetime Draft

    Introduced into Congress two days before the fall of France and signed into law three months later as Luftwaffe bombs set London afire, the Selective Training and Service Act began the process by which fifteen million Americans were inducted into the armed services during the Second World War.
  • Fall of France

    The successful German invasion of France and the Low Countries, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces.
  • Destroyer Deal with Britain

    U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
  • Battle of Britain

    In the summer and fall of 1940, German and British air forces clashed in the skies over the United Kingdom, locked in the largest sustained bombing campaign to that date. A significant turning point of World War II, the Battle of Britain ended when Germany’s Luftwaffe failed to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force despite months of targeting Britain’s air bases, military posts and, ultimately, its civilian population.
  • Lend-Lease Act

    The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled An Act to Further Promote the Defense of the United States, (Pub.L. 77–11, H.R. 1776, 55 Stat. 3034, enacted March 11, 1941)[1] was a program under which the United States supplied Great Britain, the USSR, Free France, the Republic of China, and other Allied nations with materiel between 1941 and August 1945.
  • Hitler Attacks Soviet Union

    Under the codename Operation "Barbarossa," Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, in the largest German military operation of World War II.
  • Fair Employment Practices Commission Est.

    (FEPC) implemented US Executive Order 8802, requiring that companies with government contracts not discriminate on the basis of race or religion. It was intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the homefront industry during World War II.
  • Atlantic Charter

    The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; reduction of trade restrictions; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations.
  • Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor

    The attack on Pearl Harbor[nb 4] was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan). The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II.
  • US Declares War on Japan

    The attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II in both the Pacific and European theaters. The following day (December 8), the United States declared war on Japan.
  • Japan Conquers Philippines

    The invasion of the Philippines started on December 8, 1941, ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Germany Declares War on US

    On December 8, Japanese Ambassador Oshima went to German Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop to nail the Germans down on a formal declaration of war against America.
  • Japanese-Americans Interned

    Despite the lack of any concrete evidence, Japanese Americans were suspected of remaining loyal to their ancestral land. ANTI-JAPANESE PARANOIA increased because of a large Japanese presence on the West Coast. In the event of a Japanese invasion of the American mainland, Japanese Americans were feared as a security risk. Concentration camps
  • Battle of Coral Sea

    The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought in the waters southwest of the Solomon Islands and eastward from New Guinea, was the first of the Pacific War's six fights between opposing aircraft carrier forces. Though the Japanese could rightly claim a tactical victory on "points", it was an operational and strategic defeat for them, the first major check on the great offensive they had begun five months earlier at Pearl Harbor.
  • Battle of Midway

    Only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, the United States Navy (USN), under Admirals Chester W. Nimitz, Frank Jack Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance decisively defeated an attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy
  • US Invades North Africa

    Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African Campaign of the Second World War which started on 8 November 1942.
  • Casablanca Conference

    addressed the specifics of tactical procedure, allocation of resources and the broader issues of diplomatic policy. The debate and negotiations produced what was known as the “Casablanca Declaration,” and what is, perhaps, its most historically provocative statement of purpose, “unconditional surrender.” The doctrine of “unconditional surrender” came to represent the unified voice of implacable Allied will—the determination that the Axis powers would be fought to their ultimate defeat.
  • Allies Invade Italy

    The British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery begins the Allied invasion of the Italian peninsula, crossing the Strait of Messina from Sicily and landing at Calabria--the "toe" of Italy. On the day of the landing, the Italian government secretly agreed to the Allies' terms for surrender, but no public announcement was made until September 8.
  • Japanese Driven from Guadalcanal

    the U.S. succeeded in turning back attempts by the Japanese to bombard Henderson Field with battleships. Allied aircraft also sank most of the Japanese troop transports and prevented the majority of the Japanese troops and equipment from reaching Guadalcanal. Thus, the battle turned back Japan's last major attempt to dislodge Allied forces from Guadalcanal and nearby Tulagi, resulting in a strategic victory for the U.S. and its allies and deciding the ultimate outcome of the Guadalcanal campaign
  • Teheran Conference

    Although all three of the leaders present arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran Conference was the commitment to the opening of a second front against Nazi Germany by the Western Allies. The conference also addressed relations between the Allies and Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan as well as the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three's recognition of Iran's independence.
  • D-Day

    June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which “we will accept nothing less than full victory.” More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day’s end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy. The D-Day cost was high-more than 9,000 Allied Soldiers were killed/wounded
  • Battle of Marianas

    The Battle of the Philippine Sea was a decisive naval battle of World War II which eliminated the Imperial Japanese Navy's ability to conduct large-scale carrier actions.
  • Korematsu vs. US

    Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944),[1] was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066, which ordered Japanese Americans into internment camps during World War II regardless of citizenship. In a 6-3 decision, the Court sided with the government,[2] ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional.
  • Battles of Iwo Jima & Okinawa

    two small islands remained crucial to an invasion of Japan: Iwo Jima and Okinawa. In addition to their concrete bunkers, they dug caves into the mountain linked by an intricate web of tunnels. The kamikazes—that had made their first appearance during the Battle of Leyte Gulf—also showed up in Okinawa in force. Signaled light at the end of the tunnel.
  • Roosevelt Dies; Truman Assumes Presidency

    Massive Cerebral Hemmorage :(
  • Potsdam Conference

    Ally leaders gathered to decide how to administer punishment to the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on 8 May (V-E Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties issues, and countering the effects of the war.
  • Atomic Bombs Dropped

    The atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan were conducted by the United States during the final stages of World War II in August 1945. The two bombings were the first and remain the only use of nuclear weapons in wartime.Little Boy and Fat man.On August 15, just days after the bombing of Nagasaki and the Soviet Union's declaration of war, Japan announced its surrender to the Allies. On September 2, it signed the instrument of surrender, ending World War II.
  • Japan Surrenders

    the Soviet Union invaded the Imperial Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Later that same day, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb, this time on the city of Nagasaki. The combined shock of these events caused Emperor Hirohito to intervene and order the Supreme Council for the Direction of the War to accept the terms the Allies had set down in the Potsdam Declaration for ending the war.
  • Battle of the Bulge

    The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe. The surprise attack caught the Allied forces completely off guard and became the costliest battle in terms of casualties for the United States, whose forces bore the brunt of the attack.