International history in the inter war period

International History in the Inter-War Period

  • Wilsons 14 points

    14: League of Nations to settle disputes
  • Treaty of Neully

    Deal with Bulgaria
    Main points:
    Lost some land
    Lost access to the sea
    Made Bulgaria disarm
  • Treaty of St. Germain

    Deal with Austria
    Main points:
    Separated Austria from Hungary
    Stopped Austria joining with Germany
    Land taken away eg. Bosnia
    Made Austria disarm
    Created new countries (see above)
  • Royal Commission

    In 1919 a Royal Commission was appointed to decide whether or not to return the mines to private ownership. The Commission recommended that the Government should keep the coal mines
  • Period: to

    General Strikes

    The Samuel Report was fair but nobody liked it
    The General Strike began when the subsidy ended
    The strikers couldn’t close the country down
  • The Treaty of Versailles was signed

  • Treaty of Trianon

    Deal with Hungary
    Main points:
    Land taken away eg. Croatia
    Made Hungary disarm
    Created new countries
  • Treaty of Sèvres

    Deal with Turkey
    Main points:
    Lost land – part of Turkey became new mandates eg. Syria
    Lost control of the Black Sea
  • Period: to

    League of Nations successful

    • It solved the disputes: o Germany and Poland over Upper Silesia o Sweden and Finland over the Aaland Islands o When Greece invaded Bulgaria
    • It also did a lot of good work to help refugees after the war
    • It fought against slavery, and tried to create better working conditions for people all across the world
  • Period: to

    problems which existed in international affairs

    1. Defeated countries were angry they had been forced to disarm
    2. The benefits of the Dawes and Young Plans were wiped out by the economic Depression
    3. Countries began to make agreements without the League of Nations
    4. Germany agreed to its Western Borders at Locarno, but nothing about the East (Czechoslovakia and Poland)
    5. No-one knew what’d happen if a country broke the Kellogg-Briand Pact
  • Period: to

    Boom and Bust

    Changes in European Politics
    The Italian Democracy soon ran into trouble
    The rise of Fascism seemed to be unstoppable
    Many countries were now becoming dictatorships The Booming Twenties
    Most countries were getting richer
    Behind the prosperity were signs of trouble
    Many European countries had US debts
  • Period: to

    idea of dictatorship become popular in some European countries

    Democracy was rejected by people who felt betrayed by the Peace Treaties and the poor living conditions since the War finished –instead dictators were coming to power
  • Period: to

    German economy become dependent on American loans

    Germany, which had relied on USA loans, was particularly badly affected, with banks failing, exports suffering and unemployment rising
  • Hungary gave up democracy

  • 8 million people trade unions

  • Amalgamated Engineering Union

  • The big three won (France, Britain and USA)

    Germany was forced to pay £6.6 billion in reparations –payments for the damage caused.
    The Rhineland was demilitarized. Germany’s armed forces were reduced to 100,000 men, only volunteers, without armored vehicles, aircraft, or submarines, and only 6 warships
  • Washington Conference

    USA, Britain & France reduced size of Navies
  • Period: to

    The main agreements

    There seemed to be a real chance of peace
    But all of these agreements had problems
  • Transport and General Workers’ Union

  • Rapallo Treaty

    Russia & Germany resumed diplomatic relations
  • The League failed to sort out the Corfu Incident

    Mussolini wanted both apologize and money compensation after the murder of Italian diplomat, invading the Greek island of Corfu. The League argued in favor of compensation. Finally, Mussolini received money and apologizes: the League was weak, very weak
  • Mussolini establish a dictatorship in Italy

    He changed the voting rules, and in the next elections of 1924 the Fascists swept to power, beginning to change Italy into a dictatorship, ridding of other political parties and became the Head of State
  • Geneva Protocol

    Tried to make countries use the League to sort out disputes
  • Dawes Plan

    USA plan to lend money to Germany and extend payments
  • elections of 1924

    Mussolini first come to power because He changed the voting rules, and in the next elections of 1924 the Fascists swept to power, beginning to change Italy into a dictatorship, ridding of other political parties and became the Head of State: Il Duce (the leader)
  • Turkey gave up democracy

  • Mussolini to get rid of political opponents in Italy

    Mussolini had used terror to win power
    Some sources said in 1924 that he had murdered Matteotti, a leading opposition politician
    He used a harsh secret police called the OVRA against his opponents
  • The Labour Party get into government

  • Locarno Treaties

    Germany agreed to western borders set at Versailles
  • Poland gave up democracy

  • Lithuania gave up democracy

  • The League of Nations

    By 1926, Germany’s economy was stronger and had been accepted into the League of Nations
  • Trades Disputes Act

    The Act made it illegal for a union to join a general strike or a sympathy strike (one where you go on strike to support workers from a different union)
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    65 nations agreed not to use force to settle arguments
  • Albania gave up democracy

  • The Wall Street Crash 1929

    People selling shares=>prices dropped=>business collapsed and people ruined=>banks couldn’t keep value of shares artificially because no money=>banks failed=>government should not interfere
  • Period: to

    The breakdown of international order

    The Depression Continues
    The key political effects of the Depression
    The effects of Depression on the major powers The rise of the dictators
    Factors in the rise of the dictators Japanese expansion
    Japan was seen as a threat by the USA
    Japanese aggression led to the Manchurian Crisis
    The League of Nations failed to stop Japan
    The League was weakened
  • Young Plan

    Reduced reparations by 75% gave Germany 59 years to pay
  • Lateran Treaty

    They created the Vatican City, an independent state
  • The political situation changed in Spain

  • Oswald Mosley’s ‘Blackshirt’ fascist party

  • The Import Duties Act of 1932 helped British industry

  • Import Duties Act

    This made goods coming from abroad more expensive than British goods and increased sales of British products
    This 10% tax also gave the Government a valuable new income
  • The aims of Adolf Hitler

    He wanted to reverse the results of the Versailles Treaty, and bring all the former German peoples back under his control
  • Mussolini invaded Abyssinia

  • Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland

  • Japan signed a treaty with Germany

  • Germany send troops

    Into the Rhineland
    The League of Nations was busy with the Italian invasion of Abyssinia
    Britain protested but refused to act
  • Unemployment Assistance board

    The Unemployment Assistance Board took over organizing the dole and Means Tests, labour exchanges (job centres) and training schemes to help people learn skills which would get them jobs in different parts of the country
  • Japan starts invading China

  • Spanish Civil War

    Italy and Germany joined in on the side of the Right-Wing Nationalists, and 1600 people were killed at the town of Gernika by a German warplane attack
  • Hitler pressurized Czechoslovakia

  • Mussolini had used terror to win powerSome sources said in 1924 that he had murdered Matteotti, a leading opposition politicianHe used a harsh secret police called the OVRA against his opponents

    No one in Britain wanted a war (Treaty of Versailles had been unfair to Germany
  • Nazi-Soviet pact

    They agreed not to attack each other, and also planned to carve up another country: Poland
  • Britain declared war on Germany

  • Hitler invaded Poland

    This was too much: Britain and France ordered him to leave