Holguin, Gabriel I., History of Education, EDUC 303-M01, Professor Tracey Gorham-Blanco

Timeline created by gabeholg
In History
  • Ohio passes the first law to officially adopt Bilingual Education.

    Ohio passes the first law to officially adopt Bilingual Education.
    This law allowed for German-English instruction upon the request of the student's parent(s). This influenced other states to implement Bilingual Education. By the end of the 19th century, over a dozen laws were passed; providing bilingual education in Norwegian, Italian, Polish, Czech and Cherokee.History of Bilingual Education.
  • Meyer v. Nebraska

    Meyer v. Nebraska
    Meyer v. Nebraska was U.S. Supreme court case. This court ruling fights laws that restrict the teaching of foreign languages. Moreover, this Nebraska law invalidated the banning of the teaching of foreign languages in schools. This law was found to violated the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause. Meyer v. Nebraska
  • Murray v. Pearson

    Murray v. Pearson
    Murray had met all of the requirements for admission at the University of Maryland’s law school. Murray had been denied admission because of his race. The lawsuit highlighted that his denial of admission was not equal because he had met the criteria. The court ruled in favor of Murray and as a result, he was the first African American student admitted into law school. In addition, this had forced This forced law schools and graduate schools to begin admitting students of color.
  • Mendez v. Westminster School District

    Mendez v. Westminster School District
    A few years before the U.S. Supreme Court ended racial segregation in U.S. schools with the famous Brown v. Board of Education, a federal circuit court in California ruled that segregation of school children was unconstitutional. The only difference from Brown v. Board of Education was that this case involved the segregation of Mexican American students. Mendez v. Westminster
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
    "Segregation of students by race ruled unconstitutional; children deprived of equal educational opportunity." (Gargiulo & Bouck, 2017, p. 150). This specific court case played a huge role in special education law. May refer back to Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka as a turning point for special education law. For several years, this court case was a model that helped argue that children with disabilities should not have public education taken away from them.
  • The Little Rock Nine

    The Little Rock Nine
    In 1954, the United States Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were illegal. Nine African American students were enrolled at Little Rock Central High School. On the first day of classes, Governor Orval Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to block the African American students from entering the school. Later on that month, President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered federal troops to escort the Little Rock Nine into the school. i
  • The Bilingual Education Act (BEA)

    The Bilingual Education Act (BEA)
    This was the first time that U.S. Congress had validated funding for Bilingual Education. This specific act was passed during an era where the United States experienced substantial growth of immigration and an energized Civil Rights movement. In addition, the act provided funding to schools to encourage schools to integrate native-language instruction.
    BE ACT
  • 1968: The Strike of San Francisco State

    1968: The Strike of San Francisco State
    The Black Student Union and a number of other student groups such as the Third World Liberation Front (TWLF) led the strike. The strike began on 11.06.1968 and ended 03.20.1969. Students, faculty and community members demanded equal access to public higher education, more faculty of color and a curriculum that embraces the history and culture of all people especially ethnic minorities.
    SF State Strike
  • Diana v. State Board of Education

    Diana v. State Board of Education
    Before this court ruling, only one language was used to assess students on disabilities that they might have, which was English."Students who were not raised in a “typical” white middle-class family were more likely to have a difficult time succeeding in answering the assessment items," (Lilljevall, n.d.). The court ruling required the reassessment of Mexican-American students, assessing students in their primary language, a non-verbal exam, and sections of tests that do not depend on English.
  • PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    Schools in Pennsylvania had "denied public education to students who did not reach the mental capacity of a 5-year-old by the time they turned 8 years old," ("PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania: Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse"). This along with several state laws were ruled to be unconstitutional. The court rules that the state had to evaluate/reevaluate all students with disabilities ages 6-22. The students then had to be placed in a proper classroom with resources.
  • Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972

    Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972
    Title IX highlights that that no individual in the United States be discriminated against on the basis of sex, be denied or be excluded from any education program and/or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. "You throw like a girl" is not just an insult, it is a law. Title IX
  • Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools

    Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools
    Serna v. Portales (1974) was the first case to raise the issue of bilingual education outside of the context of desegregation. This case dealt with a White-dominant school in New Mexico that failed to meet the needs of "Spanish-surnamed students." The 10th circuit court of appeals ordered Portales Municipal Schools to design and implement a bilingual/bicultural curriculum, revise assessment procedures, and hire bilingual faculty and staff.
  • Case of Lau vs. Nichols

    Case of Lau vs. Nichols
    The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the San Francisco School District was failing to provide English Language instruction to Chinese-American students who have little to no English knowledge. The court found that this was a violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The ruling, (9-0), required school districts to provide equal opportunities for all students, this includes students who do not speak English. Lau vs. Nichols
  • Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

    Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
    This a a Federal law that protects the privacy of students' school records. In addition, this law outlines parental rights concerning their child's information, transferring when the child turns 18 or move onto secondary education. This law protects access to educational information and records by public entities such as potential employers, publicly funded educational institutions, and foreign governments.
    FERPA
  • Rios v. Read

    Rios v. Read
    Puerto Rican parents brought suit claiming that many so-called bilingual education programs were not bilingual but based mainly on ESL. With this case, the federal court ruled that school districts are to be held accountable to ensure that the Bilingual program that they have in their school district should be held up to certain standard. For example, bilingual teachers should be formally trained in bilingual teaching, ESL teachers are to be formally trained in ESL teaching, etc.
  • Plyler v. Doe

    Plyler v. Doe
    Plyler v. Doe was a Supreme Court of the United States that struck down both a state statute denying funding for education to undocumented immigrant children in the United States and a municipal school district's attempt to charge an annual $1,000 tuition fee for each student to compensate for lost state funding. This court ruling is limited to K-12 schooling. Plyler v. Doe
  • Proposition 187 (California)

    Proposition 187 (California)
    Proposition 187 was introduced in California to deny illegal immigrants and anyone suspected of being so basic life needs such as health care, social services, and public education. In 1994, the issue was brought to voters and won, 59% to 41%. Proposition 187 (California) In 1998, U.S. District Court confirmed that the law was unconstitutional, therefore, the law was killed.
    PROP. 187
  • Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

    Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)
    This act is the new version of the No Child Left act of 2002. Students with disabilities will have access to the general education curriculum, accommodations on assessments. As stated by President Obama, this act is meant for students to "receive a fair, equitable, and high-quality education, and to close educational achievement gaps." Allows states to adopt the Common Core State Standards but does not require their adoption. ESSA
  • Yazzie/Martinez v. State of New Mexico

    Yazzie/Martinez v. State of New Mexico
    Yazzie/Martinez v. State of New Mexico challenged the state’s failure to provide students specifically low-income, Native American, English language learner (ELL), and students with disabilities; the programs and services necessary for them to learn and thrive as well as the state’s failure to sufficiently fund these programs and services. The court ruled that the state has failed to prepare students for college, an inadequate education system for New Mexican students, and much more.
  • The American Dream and Promise Act of 2019

    The American Dream and Promise Act of 2019
    The American Dream and Promise Act of 2019 would provide former, current, and future undocumented high-school graduates and GED recipients a pathway to U.S. citizenship. This three step pathway includes college, work, or the armed services.