History of Education; Indoctrination or Empowerment?

  • Cathoilc Influence and the Secondary School Curriculum in Ireland, 1922 - 1962

    In Ireland between 1922 and 1962, the Catholic Church had a massive influence on the secondary education system. It could be argued that the catholic church were indoctrinating the pupils that attended secondary schols at the time. The Catholic Church were very intrested in maintaining control over the secondary schools, as they wanted to 'generate a loyal middle class whose members would perpuate the Church's influence in Irish society' (McCulloch, 2005).
  • Catholic Influence and the Seocndary School Curriculum, 1922 - 1962

    'The secondary schools were also consituted fertile ground for direct recuirment of priests, religous brothers and religous sisters' (McCulloch, 2005). This is an example of religous indoctrination. As the pupils that attend the school, they have to act in a certian way according to the catholic way of life.
  • Ivan Snook's Educational Critera

    Ivan Snook's Educational Critera
    Ivan Snook devised four pieces of criteria that have been used in educational literature;
    1) Teaching itself and the ways it is done is a criteron of indoctrination. This particluar teaching method is said to include the following methods; ' a) teaching is autoritarian, b) teaching content is drilled into students' minds, c) these are threading elements in teaching and free discussion is not allowed' (Snook, 1972). Some writers label this method of teaching as 'irrational'.
  • Ivan Snook's Educational Criteria

    Ivan Snook's Educational Criteria
    The content teaching and how it is taught could be said to be a form of indoctrination. What is taught in school and the way it is delivered by teaching staff determines whether or not is is indoctrination.
  • Ivan Snook's Educational Criteria

    Ivan Snook's Educational Criteria
    Snook also argued that the intentions of teaching could be seen as indoctrantion. The first person to introduce the term 'indoctrination' was William Heard Kilpatrick. He placed an emphasis on the role and intentions of the teacher in the idea of indoctrination. John White defined a teacher's indoctrinative intention in the follwing way; 'The child should believe that 'p' is true, in a such way that nothing will shake this belief' (White, 1972 in Huttunen, 2003).
  • Ivan Snook's Educational Criteria

    Ivan Snook's Educational Criteria
    Snook also devised the consequence of teaching as a factor of indoctrination . When indoctrination is looked at in the consuquence criterion, the focus is on teaching and education. Relating to the criterion, teaching could be argued to be indoctrination if the outcome is an 'indoctrinated person'. John Wilson claims that a person who has endured indoctrination lives in self-deception. The beliefs of these people are to be unchangeable and beyond rational thinking or reasoning.
  • Does a National Curriculum Make Sense?

    Does a National Curriculum Make Sense?
    It could be argued that when the curriculum was introduced following the Education Reform Act being brought in 1988, is it is another way if allowing children to be indoctrinated.
    'The curriculum is never a simply a neutral assemblage of knowledge, somehow appearing in the texts and classrooms of a nation. It is produced out of the cultural, political and economic conflicts, tensions and compromises that organize and disorgansize a people' (Apple, 1996).
  • Every Child Matters Agenda

    Every Child Matters Agenda
    The Every Child Matters Agenda was introduced into the education system in 2003.The main aim of the agenda was to ensure that every child had the opportunity to fufill their potential by reducing levels of educational failure, abuse and neglect, and anti-social behaviour. The government consulted children and families to come up with five aims for children and young people.These are; being healthy, staying safe, enoying and achieving. making a positive contibution and economic well being.
  • Stephen Law - 'The War for Children's Minds' (2006)

    Stephen Law - 'The War for Children's Minds' (2006)
    Stephen Law introduced a list of teaching methods designed to bring children and young people to follow rules and conform to social norms and authority.
    Punishment - eg detention, priveleges taken away,
    Rewards - eg special badges, different uniforms,
    Emotional Imagery & Manipulation - eg iconic images,
    Social Pressure - eg shame and stigma,
    Repetion - eg reciting key words or pharses,
    Control and Censorship - eg removing certian books from libraries that could influece a child's beliefs.
  • Stephen Law - 'The War fo Children's Minds' (2006)

    Stephen Law - 'The War fo Children's Minds' (2006)
    Isolation - eg allowing children to believe that socalising with other children of different believes is bad
    Tribalism - eg allowing children to sterotype other children, 'us' and 'them'.
  • Inclusion in Education

    Inclusion in Education
    On the 9th March 2011, the Special Education Needs Green Paper was introduced to the education system. This involved a more in-depth assessement of children who suffer from learning difficulties, an education, health and care plan which involves multi agency working and improving outcomes.
  • Inclusion in Education

    Inclusion in Education
    Also in the Green Paper, the governement pledged that it will;
    requite that local health authorites and health services work together and jointly plan sevices that children and their families need, they also stated that they would give children with disabilities greater control over their own lives.
  • Support and aspiration: A new approach to special educational needs and disability - A consultation

    Support and aspiration: A new approach to special educational needs and disability - A consultation
    This legislation was introduced in May 2011. The main aim of this was to ensure that special edcuational needs children can benefit from an education as much as they can.
    There are five sections in this legislation. The government will try to; get help for the child as early as possible, allow parents to have more say in the help they recieve, attempt to get better in a school enviroment, help the children as young adults and attempt to improve services.
  • Early Years Foundation Stage

    Early Years Foundation Stage
    The Early Years Foundation Stage is another piece of legislation that caters for the well-being and safety of the children in an educational setting. The EYFS seeks to provide quality and consistency in all early years settings, a secure foundation through learning and development, partnership working between parents and staff and equality of opportunity, ensuring every child is involved despite thier race or religon.