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History of Education in the United States

  • Preservation of the status quo

    Though education was compulsory in several States, the average number of days a person spent in school at this time was 82 days.
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    History of American Education

    Key Events in American Education
  • Jefferson's Modest Proposal

    Thomas Jefferson makes initial draft proposal to the Virginia state legislation for 3 years guaranteed universal education in order to, "Rake a few genuises from the rubbish" of the male population. Was considered radical for its time, and was consequently voted down over 3 times from 1779-1817.
  • Blueback Speller published by Daniel Webster

    Became "America's Textbook." Essentially codified "American" pronunciation and was a forerunner to the Webster's Dictionary.
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    Horace Mann's time

    Horace Mann rides on horseback to inspect over 1000 schools in Massachusets.
  • Time in Education

    Average time spent at school over a lifetime: 4 months. Average cost per pupil: $2.81
  • Great School Debates

    Great school debates start in NYC between Bishop Hughes and the Catholic community, and the NYC school association. Fight is over use of public funds to use in Catholic parochial schools as the schools of time generally tend to disparage Catholicsm, at best, condemn it outright, at worst.
  • Time in Education

    Average time in school over lifetime: 7 months

    Average cost per pupil: $4.80
  • Philadelphia Bible riots

    Bible riots erupt between Irish Catholic community, and Protestant community.
  • NYC School Board elections

    School board is now an elected body.
  • Segregation in Boston

    Petition filed by 90 African American citizens in Boston challenging the policy of segregation in Boston public schools. At that time, there were only two schools for African American children in Boston. One in particular, the Smith School, was found sorely lacking in school materials and was crumbling into complete disrepair. Nothing comes of the petition for nearly 10 years.
  • Roberts files suit against Boston School Committee

  • MA Supreme Court rules against Sara Roberts

  • Hughes named NY Arch Bishop

    Signals growing prominence of American Catholic community in the eyes of Rome.
  • MA legislature abolishes segregation in public schools

  • Compulsory Education the law of the land

    All new States required to have a statement in their constitutions establishing compulsory education.
  • Factoids

    7.6 million students in America. $63m spent on eduction.
  • Factoids

    12.7 million students in America. $141m spent on education.
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    22 Million Immigrants to United States

  • John Dewey gains prominence

    Pulished, "The School and Society." Became the leader of the progressive movement that challenged the public school system of the day, saying that students needed to be more engaged and stimulated.
  • Emerson School in Gary, IN

    Establishes Gary, IN as the forerunner in progressive education reform.
  • The "Gary Plan" cancelled in NYC schools

    The "Gary Plan" which had been promulgated far and wide begins an era of decline. Misrepresented by politicians as a system that only created workers with education, the progressive "Gary Plan" is done away with in NYC schools.
  • Clubberly era at Stanford begins

    Cloverly espouses an education platform that gets back to the basics. Based on making schools more efficient and education that focuses on creating workers and college bound separated.
  • Factoids

    $1b spent on eduction in the United States. A full 17% of students eventually graduates from high school.
  • Louis Terman's IQ testing

    Beginning this decade, the United States sees widespread use of IQ testing in the public school systems.
  • Hispanics in Los Angeles

    A full 2/3 of the hispanic students in LA schools are classified as "slow learners" or retarded this decade, based on IQ testing.
  • Compulsory Eduction until 18 the law

  • Factoids

    A full 45% of 17 year olds graduates High School.
  • Life Adjustment Education

    LAE developed by United States Department of Education, essentially giving up the intellectual mission of schools.
  • Alfred Bestor publishes "An Educational Wasteland"

    Bestor leads a campaign to return to a more traditional curriculum.
  • Sputnik

    A whole new era in science and math based education proceeds as a result the Soviet launch.
  • Julian Nava and IQ testing

    Julian Nava leads effort to end IQ testing in LA schools.
  • Competition in the Schools: Strategy of Choice experiment begins in East Harlem

    Small, alternative schools are created within existing schools creating school choice for parents.
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    The Bottom Line: Schools as Corporate Entities

  • NYC Educators require students choose between alternative and traditional schools.

  • "A Nation at Risk" published

  • Standardized Testing Costs in the US for 1983-1984 = $500m

  • East Harlem schools now statistically outperform most other NYC schools

  • Milwaukee voucher experiment begins

  • NYC Board of Education now allows parents and students to seek enrollment in any NYC school.

  • EAI contracted to run 9 Baltimore public schools

  • Cleveland voucher recipients now able to use vouchers at parochial schools. First in the nation.

  • Milwaukee voucher recipents now number 1500, up from 450 in 1990.

  • EAI ends Baltimore experiment. Signs contract to run 12 smaller, charter schools in Arizona.

  • US Congress approves funding of $80m for charter school construction

  • Milwaukee allows vouchers to be used at parochial schools. Over 3/4 of those now using vouchers for first time were enrolled in parochial school in previous school year.

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    Home Schooling legal in all 50 States

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    Corporate run Charter Schools = 173. Publically funded Charter Schools = 2100. Traditional Public Schools = 91k+