History of Education in the Philippines

  • Jan 1, 1554


    Aim: for survival and conformity; for enculturation
    Methods: demonstration method; observation/imitation
    Content: broad, indefinite and unwritten; unstructured; research later shows Filipinos already have their own "baybayin" alphabet
  • Jan 2, 1555

    SPANISH PERIOD (1555-1898)

    SPANISH PERIOD (1555-1898)
    Royal decree of 1555 mandated the ff. education goals:
    - indoctrination of Christianity
    - promotion of Spanish language
    - imposition of Spanish culture
    Methods: dictation; memorization; moro-moro, cenaculo
    *Primary instruction was free but usually for the elite. Education during that period was inadequate, suppressed, and controlled.
    Content: Christian doctrine; intro of parochial schools; severe discipline imposed; authoritarianism type; teacher dominated
  • Jan 1, 1565

    Parochial Schools

    Parochial Schools
    rise of parochial schools started by the Agustinians and later by other religious Spanish orders. among the 1st schools are Colegio de San Ignacio (1589), UST (1611), Beaterio de Sta. Potenciana (1st only-girls school in 1594)
  • Royal Decree of 1863

    Royal Decree of 1863
    Establishment of Education Act of 1863 whereby which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits.
  • Period: to


    Aim: to promote democratic ideals and way of life
    Content: 3Rs, GMRC, civics, hygiense and sanitation, gardening, American and Phil history; highly influenced by John Dewey
    Method: democratic way of teaching
    *religious freedom was enforced; right attitudes, habits and intelligence and democratic ideals were emphasized; schools had the role of guidance and consultancy
  • Creation of Dept. of Public Instruction and Educational Act of 1901

    Creation of Dept. of Public Instruction and Educational Act of 1901
    aka Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission was promulgated to establish a Dept. of Public Instruction (1900) to oversee the operations of public schools (section 17 of which created PNU)
    - a 3-level school syatem was set up (elementary, high school and college)
  • 1935 Consitution (Commonwealth Period)

    1935 Consitution (Commonwealth Period)
    *As set forth in the 1935 Constitution, educational aims are: to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience, vocational efficiency and duties of citizenship. Various Executive Orders were mandated by Commonwealth president M.L.Quezon such as Educ. Act of 1940, EO 134 (Tagalog) EO 17 (code of ethics); EO 263 (compulsory teaching of Pilipino language)
  • Period: to


    *Order No. 2 of the Japanese Imperial Forces set up the war time educational aims in Phils: fostering a new culture based on consciousness of the people as Orientals; elevating the morals of the people over materialism; diffusion of elem. educ. and promotion of vocational educ.; diffusion of Japanses language and termination of use of English in schools
    *establishment of vocational, agricultural and technical schools; teaching P.E. and Japanese songs
  • Legal Mandate for Education during Japanese occupation

    Order No. 2 of the Japanese Imperial Forces was established to set up war time educational objectives
  • Period: to


    Starting with the 1935 Constitution up to present, various reforms were made on the educational system.
    EOs and RAs establishing various agencies started to prolifigate, living and working conditions of teachers were addressed and their civil service eligibility, barrio and provincial schools were created, educational programs to enhance studies and assessments were initiated (NCEE, NSAT, etc) aim is still to promote natl devt and values educ., and implementation of K-12
  • Board of Textbooks (RA 139)

    Board of Textbooks (RA 139)
    its function was to screen and approve textbooks for use in all public schools. Private schools can use textbooks of their choice provided the Board has no objections.
  • Civil Service Eligibility

    Pursuant to RA 1079, teachers are required to take civil service exma to be eligible to teach in public schools.
  • Magna Carta for Teachers

    *recruitment qualification of teachers
    *Code of Professional Conduct
    *teaching load and overtime
    *GSIS benefits
    *leaves, salary increases
  • YDT and CAT are introduced via 1973 Constitution

    *aside from YDT and CAT, several educational programs were initiated from 197-1986, viz: NCEE (later abolished in 1994), NSAT, NEAT, etc.
    *automatic civisl service eligibility to tertiary honor students
  • Professional Board Exams for Teachers (now LET)

    *as per PD 1006, teachers are given professional status upon passing the board exam (PBET). Currently, RA 7836 mandates that teachers should pass the LET as administered by the PRC.
  • Education Act of 1982

    *aka BP 232 was executed to promote and maintain "quality education" through accreditation for all schools to upgrade their standards;
  • Break-up of DECS into 3 departments

    *as recommended by Congress, DECS was subdivided into 3 depts: Dept of Basic Education (BSE); TESDA; and CHED.
    *establishment of Teacher Education Centers of Excellence
  • Student Employment Law

    *aka RA 7323, it allows students aged 15-25 to be employed during summer or Christmas vacations with a salary not lower than the minimum wage where 60% paid by employer and 40% shouldered by the govt.
  • K-12 Educational System

    • started promotion and deliberation as early as 2011 but only approved in May 2013 by President Noynoy Aquino. Aka RA 10533, it enumerates the necessity and implementation of the program for Dep-Ed in consultation with CHED, TESDA, DOLE, DOST among other stakeholders. It also details hiring of new faculty for teaching and careeer guidance/counselling. Considered a major. if not the biggest step, towards global competitiveness of Filipino graduates.
  • 1987 Constitution

    Aims for education: inculcate patriotism/nationalism; foster love of humanity; respect for human rights; appreciation of national heroes; rights and duties of citizenship; strengthen ethical and spiritual values; develop moral character and discipline; encourage critical creative thinking; broaden science/technology; promote vocational efficiency