History of Education

  • Reading and Math skills in America very limited

  • Lifetime School Attendance

    Averaged less than 82 days
  • Jefferson Education Proposal

    Thomas Jefferson proposes three years of guaranteed education for all children. During this stage the brighter children could be identified and sent on to further schooling
  • Webster's speller published

    Popular forerunner to Webster's dictionary became a schoolhouse staple
  • Horace Mann

    Horace Mann, Massachusetts Secretary of Education, tours schools and identifies shortcomings and inequalities
  • Bishop John Hughes and School Debates

    Following a negative environment for Irish and Catholic students in Protestant public schools, Bishop Hughes calls for public funds for Catholic schools. A debate ensues about religion in schools
  • New York Board of Education established

    The elected board replaced the Public School Society
  • Mass. Supreme Court Upholds Segregation

    Court rules against Roberts, who sued to allow his daughter to attend white schools
  • John Hughes becomes an Archbishop

    Archbishop Hughes uses his influence to expand Catholic schools
  • Massachusetts abolishes segregation in schools

  • Supreme Court allows segregation

    Segregation allowed when "separate but equal"
  • Dewey's School and Society published

    Early text on school reform
  • Gary, IN

    Massive growth leads Gary, IN, to institute revolutionary new schools with large, community-oriented facilities. Curriculum is well-rounded, including traditional academics as well as practical life skills.
  • The I.Q. Test

    The I.Q. test is created, leading to a standardized testing to determine intelligence.
  • New York reacts to Gary plan

    New Yorkers largely reject the "Gary Plan." Immigrants fear it will result in steering their children towards manual labor careers instead of college and professional careers.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    US Supreme Court rules to end school segregation. Enforcement, however, is very limited.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Discontinued federal funding to segregated schools
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Gave an unprecedented 4 billion dollars to education system
  • Crystal City Texas School Board Election

    Following a failure to meet the need of the Mexican-American community, four out of seven school board members are replaced with Mexican-Americans. Many "anglo" students leave as new educational policies are enacted.
  • Busing used to increase integration

    As some areas were either naturally concentrated with one ethnic group or specially zoned to be so, students are bussed around to different schools to balance races.
  • Title Nine

    Allows increased opportunies for women in schools
  • East Harlem School Experiments

    East Harlem, the worst performing region in New York, launches an experiment where numerous small, specialized schools are created within existing buildings. These schools typically have a specific focus to keep students interested. Non-specialized programs also improve to keep students.
  • A Nation at Risk

    President Ronald Reagan reveal a new report, "A Nation at Risk," showing sharp declines in basic knowledge in schools. While many disagree with the findings, it leads to incorporation of marketplace concepts to the education system, with student test results being interpreted as the "profit."
  • Voucher System

    Wisconsin begins a voucher system that allows certain students to attend private schools with public school funds.
  • Privatization Experiment in Baltimore

    Baltimore contracts with a private firm to manage local schools. While cost of maintenance and operations go down, the students do not make significant gains. The program is ended.
  • Charter Schools

    Charter Schools begin to expand, allowing for specialized schools that can be established by almost anyone and use public funds.