Boyle came up with the gas laws and was the first to discover small particales forming molecules. He also showed differences between compounds and mixtures.
Death of Alchemy
Aristotle's four element theory and the publishing of "The Skeptical Chemist", by Robert Boyle, were big parts of the failure in the early form of chemisty.
John Dalton's theory
Dalton said all matter was made up of atoms, the atoms have unique charateristics and weight, and there are three types of atoms. (simple, compound, and complex)
Joseph John Thomson
Thomson won the Atoms Prize for his interest and research on atomic structure. "Treatse on the Motion of Vortex Rings" won him this prize.
The discovery of the proton
Eugene Goldstein found positive particles using hydrogen gas in a tube. He found it had an equal and opposite charge to the electron. He then named it the proton.
Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays by accident while studying cathode rays. He found out that rays that cause fluorescent are able to pass through glass, cardboard, and walls. These rays were then called x-rays.
Rutherford started researching in New Zealand about the magnetic properties of iron exposed to high-frequency oscillations. He wrote a thesis from this research called "Magentization of Iron by High-Frequency discharges.
Protons within a nucleus
Henry Moseley tried to use x-rays to find the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom but was not successful because nobody had discovered the neutron yet.
He received the nobel prize for his work on the structure of atoms.