Gt Foundations 501

Timeline created by susangoodman
  • Sir Francis Galton, Intelligence Testing & Evolution

    R.Anglemyer) In 1869, Galton reported his intelligence research & writings in the book “Hereditary Genius.” He reasoned through testing that intelligence was related to sensory ability, and evolution would favor those with acute senses. Therefore, he concluded that intelligence is hereditary, passed down through generations, and due to the natural selection process of evolution. His research contributed to the beginning of scientific evidence bringing credibility to gifted education.
  • Lewis Termin - Standford-Binet Intelligence Test

    Lewis Termin - Standford-Binet Intelligence Test
    (Kristen Briggs) Lewis Terman, a Stanford psychologist, made significant contributions to G/T education. He revised the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test and employed its use in the military during WWI. He ranked the results and those with the highest I.Q.’s were selected for officer training while the lowest rankings were eliminated from officer training. The experiences in the Army led to the widespread use of the I.Q. tests in schools.
  • United States Starts Intelligence Testing

    (Michael McNeil) In 1917 The United States enters into the first world war which requires a large scale army. "The Army Alpha and Beta were created and administered to over one million recruits." ( This legitimized the testing in both academics and the general public.
  • Leta Hollingworth "Nurturant Mother"

    Leta Hollingworth "Nurturant Mother"
    (Brandi Brown) Leta Hollingworth is described as the 'Mother of Gifted Education'. Hollingworth started the first school in New York for gifted students. At this school her primary focus was on students that received and IQ score between 130 and 200. Hollingworth is credited with introducing the concept of above level testing for the profoundly gifted. Leta Hollingworth recommended that gifted students not only receive advanced curriculum, but they should also receive emotional education.
  • American Association for Gifted Children- AAGC

    (Brandi Brown) The American Association for Gifted Children (AAGC) was established in 1946. The AAGC was founded by Strang and Williamson because they felt that gifted students were being ignored and were falling through the cracks of the education system. The purpose of the AAGC was to ensure that gifted students were being challenged, sufficient curriculum was being developed and taught, and that gifted students had a voice in the education system.
  • NAGC Created

    (Susan Goodman) In 1954, the NAGC was founded. This association provides many resources to administrators, teachers, and parents. There are a plethora of resources on their website for anyone who is a stakeholder in gifted education. ( They provide conferences, publications, webinars and standards to help gifted learners as well as those who service them.
  • AP Exams

    (Victoria Lee) In 1955, the College Board provided tests, known as AP Exams, for advanced placement students. This has allowed the advanced students to receive college credit while still in high school.
  • Launch of Russian satellite Sputnik

    (Amy Warren) The launch of the Russian satellite Sputnik in 1957 was seen as an obvious example of Russian minds "beating" those here in the United States. Many reports were published criticizing the American education system and its lack of opportunities for gifted students. This spurred a new era in which gifted students were identified and accelerated learning opportunities became more readily available at all levels.
  • Marland Report to Congress - 1972

    The 1st national report on gifted education, it highlighted challenges facing students with gifts and talents, saying they "can suffer psychological damage and permanent impairment of their abilities to function well" and cannot survive "educational neglect and apathy." It challenged any notions that gifted students would simply excel on their own. It identified limitations in programs across the country and identified steps to improve G/T education, to be implemented in 1971
    (Lindsay Alvey)
  • A Nation at Risk Report

    (Michael McNeil) In 1983 a report called A Nation at Risk shows scores of America's brightest students and how they fail to compete with their international counterparts. "This Report includes policies and practices in gifted education, raising academic standards, and promoting appropriate curriculum for gifted learners." (
  • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    (Rachel Anglemyer) In 1983, Howard Gardner proposed the 'Theory of Multiple Intelligences' analyzing individual differences in the “gifted.” He described intelligence, not as one capacity, but as many facets of intelligence. He theorized seven intelligences and in 1999, added an eighth, “naturalist intelligence.” Gardner’s 8 different intelligences include linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist intelligence.
  • Jacob Javits Gifted & Talented Students Education Act

    Passed under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, it established the National Research Center for the Education of Gifted and Talented Children and Youth. Provided federal grants for research and development of G/T programs and for research into best methods for instruction and identification of gifted students. Broadened definition to say "outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups...economic all areas of human endeavor."
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    (Kristen Briggs) The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act’s goal was to enhance the growth of the lowest-achieving students and create equity. Although there were gains in reading and math, the impacts on G/T were detrimental. The top students suffered from minor gains and the diminishing of opportunities. Teachers began to focus on the lowest students while neglecting the needs of the high achieving students.
  • America Competes Act

    (Amy Warren) The America Competes Act was signed into law in 2007 and was intended to strengthen educational opportunities in the STEM fields. It was in response to concerns about American students being able to compete in the global economy (similar to the concerns after the launch of Sputnik). While the Act does not specifically target gifted students, it does create many opportunities for subjects and thinking skills that are fundamental to gifted education.
  • TALENT Act

    (Victoria Lee) In 2015, the TALENT Act was created to keep the high achieving students from falling through the cracks, by not being challenged. The main purpose is to provide appropriate supports for students who could become high achieving students. A few goals of the act are to train teachers in identifying gifted students, maximize student potential, incorporate less affluent areas, and increase STEM opportunities.
  • ESSA

    (Susan Goodman) The Every Student Succeeds Act is a US law passed that governs K–12 public education policy. Title I funds may be used to identify and serve gifted students. States say how they will use funds to train teachers to identify students and meet academic needs. Law retains the authorization of the Jacob Javits Gifted Education Grant.