The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks

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    Scientific Adjusts since HeLa

  • John Hopkins hospital is Founded

  • Alexis Carrel

    Alexis Carrel claims to have succesfully grown 'immortal' chicken heart cells
  • Henrietta lacks is Born in Roanoke, Virginia

    Henrietta lacks is Born in Roanoke, Virginia
    This is when almost all the big changes in science started:
  • George Guy

    George Guy successfully cultures (creates in a liquid type better that cells grow in) the first immortal human cell line using cells from Henrietta's cervix. It is given the name HeLa after the first two initials of Henrietta's first and last names.
  • HeLa goes Postal

    HeLa goes Postal
    HeLa cells become the first living cekks shipped via postal mail.
  • Death of Henrietta

    Death of Henrietta
    Henrietta Lacks dies of an unusually aggressive strain (type) of cervical cancer
  • HeLa Factory

    HeLa Factory
    The Tuskegee Institute opens the first "HeLa Factory", supplying cells to laboratories and researchers and operating as a nonprofit. Within a few yeas, a company named Microbiological Associates would begin selling HeLa for profit.
  • Polio Vaccine

    Scientists use HeLa cells to help develope the polio vaccine
  • Cloning

    HeLa cells became the first cells ever cloned
  • Naming and Misconceptions

    The pseudonym (public nae) "Helen Lane" first appears in print as the source of HeLa cells.
  • Illegal Experiments

    Chester Southam begins to conduxt ecoeriments without patient consent to see whether or not injections of HeLa cells could cause cancer
  • Terms in Court

    The term "informed consent" first appears in courtn documents
  • Mutations

    HeLa cells are fused with mouse cells, creating the first animal-human hybrid cells
  • Found Guilty

    The Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York finds Southam and a colleague (partner in work) guilty of unprofessional conduct and calls for stricter guidlines regarding human research subjects and informed consent.
  • Funding Guidlines

    To ensure adherence (to make sure that everyone is following orders) to the new guildines for research involving human subjects, the National Institutes of Health begins requiring the approval of Institutional Review Boards for any research they fund.
  • HeLa Bomb

    Stanely Gartler drops the "HeLa Bomb" and proposes that HeLa cells hae contaminated numerouse cell lines.
  • Death of Gey

    George Gey dies of pancreatic cancer
  • Henrietta Lacks at Last

    In a tribute to George Gey, Henrietta Lacks is correctly identified for the first time in print as the source of HeLa
  • Family Shocks

    The Lacks family learns for the first time that Henrieta's cells are still alive.
  • Research Continues

    Researchers from Johns Hopkins take samples from Henrietta's childeren to further HeLa research, without informed consent
  • the Common Rule

    The Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (the Common Rule) requires informed consent for all human-subject research
  • in the Rolling Stone

    Micheal Rogers publishes an article about HeLa and the Lacks family learns for the first time that Henrietta's cells have been comercialized.
  • Unhappy Patient

    John Moore unsuccessfully sues his doctore and the Board of Regents of the University of california for property rights over his tissues. Moore appeals the decision.
  • Medical Records

    Portions of Henrietta's medical records are published without her family's knowlesge or consent.
  • Moore's Appeal

    The Califrnia Court of Appeals (to appeal is to dissapprove of the decision) rules in John Moores favor, saying that patients must have the power to control what becomes of their own tissues. Moore's doctor and the University ofCalifornia appeal.
  • Appealing Once More

    The Supreme Court of California rulesagainst John Moore, saying that onve tissues are removed from the body, with or without consent, a person no londer owns those tissues.
  • Medical Records Public? No no no

    The Health Insuramce Portability and Accountability Act makes it illegal for healthcare providers or health insurers to make personal medical information public
  • Shocking Subjects

    The RAND Corporation publishes a report with a "conservative estimate" that more than 307 million tissue samples from more than 178 million people are stored in the United States alone. The majority of the samples were taken without consent.
  • Native Americans get Involved

    Members of the Native American Havasupai tribe sue Arizona State University after scientists take tissue samples the tribe donated for diabetes research amf use them without consent to study schizophrenia and inbreeding
  • Lawsuits Denied

    Six thousand patients join a lawsuit against Washington State University, demanding that the university remove their tissue samples from its prostate-cancer bank. Two courts later rule against the patients
  • Genes, Genes, and more Genes

    By this date, the U.S. government has issued patents relating to the use of about 20 percent of known human genes, including genes for Alzheimer's, asthma, colon cancer, and, most famously, breast cancer.
  • Big Mistake

    An NIH ersearcher is charged with violating a federal conflict-of-interest law for providing thousands of tissue samples to the pharmaceutical company Pfizer in exchange for about half a million dollars
  • Baby Investments

    The National Institutes of Health invests $13.5 million to develop a bank for fetal blood samples.
  • Parents Fight Back

    Parents in Minnesota and Texas sue to stop the nationwide practice of storing and conducting research -without consent- on fetal blood samples, many of which can be traced back to the infants they came from
  • More lawsuits- This Time from Scientists Themselves

    More than 150,000 scientists join the American Civil Liberties Union and breast-cancer patients suing Myriad Genetics over its breast-cancergene patents. The suit claims that the practice of gene patenting violates patent law and has inhibited scientific research.