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INTERNATIONAL HISTORY OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY.

  • 3000 BCE

    INTERNATIONAL HISTORY OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY.

  • 476

    Middle Ages

    Middle Ages
    -Growth of trade
    -Increased need for money and capitals
    -Mines deeper ,conditions worsened
  • 500

    Ancient Times

    Ancient Times
    -Manual work, mining, among others
    -Miners used bags and sacks as masks to decrease dust explosive
  • 1556

    1556

    1556
    Publication of Georgius Agricola’s ‘De Re Metallica’ (‘On the Nature of Metals’), which talks about metals and mining techniques and makes reference to the need to look after the miners (e.g. sufficient ventilation, respiratory protection)
  • 1700

    1700
    Bernardino Ramazzini,Bernardino Ramazzini, an Italian physician known as the father of occupational medicine, publishes ‘De Morbis Artificum Diatriba’ (‘Diseases of Workers’) about occupational diseases
  • 1743

    1743
    people who living in close quarters in areas that were poorly ventilated,such as in prisons ,ships and granaries were at an increased risk for becoming infected with diseases
  • The Industrial Revolution 1760 – 1800s

    The Industrial Revolution 1760 – 1800s
    -People flocked to the cities for work where there were increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories
    -The vast number of people looking for work, and the need for cheap labour, led to poor pay, hazardous factory conditions and an increase in child labour. Hours were long and conditions dangerous, with many losing their lives at work.
  • The Industrial Revolution 1760 – 1800s

    The Industrial Revolution 1760 – 1800s
    -A lack of health and safety also meant that many children developed occupational diseases such as lung cancer, and died before the age of 25. -1775: Percivall Pott, a surgeon, finds an association between exposure to soot and a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps, the first occupational link to cancer
  • 1802

    1802
    An outcry over child labour conditions led to factory owner, Sir Robert Peel, introducing the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act 1802, commonly known as the Factory Act.
    -Have sufficient windows and opening for ventilation
    -Be cleaned at least twice yearly with quicklime and water
    - Limit working hours for apprentices to no more than 12 hours a day (excluding time taken for breaks)
  • 1802

    1802
    An outcry over child labour conditions led to factory owner, Sir Robert Peel, introducing the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act 1802, commonly known as the Factory Act. -Stop night-time working by apprentices during the hours of 9pm and 6am
    -Provide suitable clothing and sleeping accommodation to every apprentice
    -Instruct apprentices in reading, writing, arithmetic and the principles of the Christian religion
  • 1832

    1832
    Publication of the definitive edition of Charles Turner Thackrah’s book about industrial diseases. Occupational medicine as a discipline was established a result of this work and Thackrah became known as the ‘Father of Occupational Medicine
  • 1833-1868

    1833-1868
    -The Factory Act comes into force in an attempt to improve working conditions and sees the appointment of the first factory inspectors. It was used as the basis for many subsequent revisions (including 1884 and 1948)
  • The introduction of ‘duty of care’ 1837

    The introduction of ‘duty of care’ 1837
    On May 30th Charles Priestley suffered a broken thigh, dislocated shoulder and several other injuries after a wagon cracked and overturned due to overloading by his employer, Thomas Fowler.
  • 1842-1878

    1842-1878
    Several acts introduced over the next 36 years, saw protection towards women and children strengthen. Women and children were prevented from working in underground mines, the use of child labour to clean and maintain moving machinery was stopped, and a 56-hour work week for women and children was introduced
  • 1898

    1898
    Sir Thomas Marison Legge becomes the first inspector of factories in England and writes about lead poisoning and lead absorption in 1912.
  • 1919

    1919
    Foundation of the International Labour Organization (ILO), made up of representatives from Government, employers and workers
  • 1929

    1929
    Great depression: no work, food and money
  • 1930

    1930
    -Rooselvet introduced a new legislation to help people during the depression
    -OHS: was born throught the public health services
  • 1935

    1935
    Association of Industrial Medical Officers (later the Society of Occupational Medicine) is formed.
  • 1939

    1939
    American industrial Hygiene asociation takes place in cleveland
  • 1950

    1950
    The International Labour Organization (ILO) and World Health Organization (WHO) develop a shared definition of occupational health
  • 1951

    1951
    The Dale Report recommends the expansion of industrial services into a national occupational health service.
  • 1952

    1952
    Royal College of Nursing Occupational Health Section is established.
  • 1953

    1953
    British Occupational Hygiene Society is formed.
  • 1955

    1955
    Donald Hunter publishes ‘The Diseases of Occupations
  • 1968

    1968
    Tunbridge Report ‘The Care of the Health of Hospital Staff’ is published, recommending hospital occupational health services
  • 1971

    1971
    OSMA is created and soon adopts its first standards
  • 1972

    1972
    The publication of the Robens Committee on Health and Safety report, which leads to the introduction of the Health and Safety at Work Act in 1974.
  • 1973

    1973
    -Entry of the UK into the European Economic Community, initiating the requirement for the UK to implement European directives on health and safety, and discrimination. -Health and Safety Executive Employment Medical Advisory Service becomes operational
  • 1978

    1978
    Faculty of Occupational Medicine is created within the Royal College of Physicians.
  • 1982

    1982
    Royal College of Nursing publishes the ‘Education of the Occupational Health Nurse’.
  • 1988

    1988
    Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) become operational
  • 1992

    1992
    The Association of Occupational Health Nurse Practitioners (UK) (AOHNP) is founded with a goal to increase the representation and profile of OH nurses.
  • 2000

    2000
    Health and Safety Commission’s ‘Securing Health Together’ 10-year occupational health strategy is launched.
  • 2004

    2004
    Commercial Occupational Health Providers Association (COHPA) is launched.
  • 2008

    2008
    Publication of Dame Carol Black’s report ‘Working for a Healthier Tomorrow’.
  • 2009

    2009
    -Council for Health and Work is formed with an independent chair.
    - ‘NHS Health and Well-being’, the Boorman review, is published.
  • 2010

    2010
    SEQOHS launched, standing for ‘Safe, Effective, Quality Occupational Health Service’ - a set of standards and a voluntary accreditation scheme for occupational health services in the UK and beyond.
  • 2011

    2011
    -Health at Work – An independent review of sickness absence’ by Dame Carol Black and David Frost recommends a national health and work service.
  • 2014

    2014
    Fit for Work service is launched
  • 2017

    2017
    The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, still forms the basis of workplace safety law in the UK, and went on to influence legislation in Europe, New Zealand and other parts of the world
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY.....

    BIBLIOGRAPHY.....
    -Health Management Ltd.(s.f).A brief history of
    occupational health.copyright.February de 2019.recovered from :file:///C:/Users/da/Downloads/3571350_class2historyoccupationalhealth.pdf
    -Wohis.(2015).La historia de la Ley de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional.wohis.org.February2019.recovered from:http://wohis.org/history/
    -Billington,N.(2017).The way we were: the evolution of health and safety .staysafeapp.com.February 2019.recovered from :https://www.staysafeapp.com/history-workplace-health-safety/