PythagorasThe first to affirm the principle of the spherity of the Earth
HerodotusTo him is due the elaboration of the first known map with the inclusion of the names of the towns.
AristotleDescribed the Earth as an immobile spherical mass, located at the center of a round universe
EratosthenesEstimated the radius of the Earth Middle age.
Claudius Ptolemyhe described the location of about a thousand stars, according to a geocentric theory in which the Earth was located at the center of the universe, with the Moon, the Sun and the stars revolving around him and detailed atlases
Al-IdrisiMade a large world map oriented in the opposite direction to the one currently used (north down and south up), known as the Tabula Rogeriana, accompanied by a book called Geography.
Ibn BatutaRecognized as an important source of Medieval Geography.
Ibn KhaldunHe tried to prove that the forces and phenomena of nature influence human society as a constant and powerful factor, this is the principle of Geographical determinism.
Bernard PalissyWrote on the nature and scientific study of soils, underground waters, and fossils.