Gagarin in sweden

Full Space Timeline (Before, During and After the Space Race)

  • Goddard 1 (USA)

    Goddard 1 (USA)
    Robbert H. Goddard launches the first succesful liquid-fueled rocket.
    (93 years ago)
  • V2 Rocket (Nazi Germany)

    V2 Rocket (Nazi Germany)
    First balistic missile launch. (76 Years Ago)
  • MW 18014 (Nazi Germany)

    MW 18014 (Nazi Germany)
    First V2 rocket to reach space. First man-made object in space.
  • V2 Nº13 (USA)

    V2 Nº13 (USA)
    First photo taken of Earth from outer space.
  • Blossom 1 [V2 Nº20] (USA)

    Blossom 1 [V2 Nº20] (USA)
    First animals in space, and first animals safely returned to Earth (Fruit Flies).
  • Blossom 4 [V2 Nº47] (USA)

    Blossom 4 [V2 Nº47] (USA)
    First monkey into space (Albert II).
  • R-1 Rocket (USSR)

    First dogs in space in a suborbital flight. First mammals to retun safely from a suborbital flight (Dezik and Tsygan).
  • Period: to

    Space Race [19Yrs]

  • [EVENT] ABMA Foundation

    [EVENT] ABMA Foundation
    The Army Ballistic Missile Agency was formed to develop the U.S. Army's first large ballistic missile. The agency was established at Redstone Arsenal,and commanded by Major General John B. Medaris with Wernher von Braun as technical director.
  • R-7 Semyorka Rocket (USSR)

    R-7 Semyorka Rocket (USSR)
    First Intercontinental Balistic Missile (ICBM)
  • Sputnik 1 (USSR)

    Sputnik 1 (USSR)
    First artificial satelite (Sputnik 1) and first signal from space.
  • Sputnik 2 (USSR)

    Sputnik 2 (USSR)
    First animal in orbit (Laika).
  • Explorer 1 (USA)

    Explorer 1 (USA)
    First US satellite (Explorer 1) and first detection of the Van Allen Belts.
  • [EVENT] NASA Foundation

    [EVENT] NASA Foundation
    NASA was the successor of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science.
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    Luna Programme (USSR) [17Yrs]

  • Metcha [Luna 1] (USSR)

    Metcha [Luna 1] (USSR)
    First lunar spacecraft, first rocket engine to restart in Earth orbit, and first spacecraft top orbit the Sun.
  • Jupiter AM-18 (USA)

    Jupiter AM-18 (USA)
    First monkeys to return safely to Earth from space (Able and Baker).
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    X-15 Project (USA) [9Yrs]

  • Explorer 6 (USA)

    Explorer 6 (USA)
    First photograph of Earth from orbit.
  • Period: to

    Project Mercury (USA) [3Yrs]

  • Luna 2 (USSR)

    Luna 2 (USSR)
    First impact into anoter celestial body (the Moon)
  • Luna 3 (USSR)

    Luna 3 (USSR)
    First photos of the far side of the Moon.
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    Apollo Programme (USA) [12Yrs]

  • Discoverer 13 (USA)

    Discoverer 13 (USA)
    First satellite recovered intact from orbit.
  • Discoverer 14 (USA)

    Discoverer 14 (USA)
    First recovery of film from a satellite, and first aerial recovery of an object returning from Earth orbit.
  • Korabl-Sputnik 2 [Sputnik 5] (USSR)

    Korabl-Sputnik 2 [Sputnik 5] (USSR)
    First animals to safely return to Earth from orbit alive (Belka and Stelka).
  • Mercury-Redstone 2 (USA)

    Mercury-Redstone 2 (USA)
    First ape to return safely to Earth from space (Ham).
  • Vostok 1 (USSR)

    Vostok 1 (USSR)
    First human in space, first human in orbit, and first manned spacecraft in orbit.
  • Freedom 7 (USA)

    Freedom 7 (USA)
    First american in space, and first complete human spaceflight*. *It was the first complete human spaceflight by FAI standards, as Yuri Gagarin didn't return in his spacecraft, as after reentry, he parachuted to safety.
  • Vostok 2

    Vostok 2
    First 24 hour spaceflight (Gherman Titov).
  • Ariel 1 (USA & UK)

    Ariel 1 (USA & UK)
    First artificial satellite made by a non-superpower (UK).
  • [EVENT] Kennedy's Speech

    [EVENT] Kennedy's Speech
    In his "we choose to go to the Moon" speech, Kennedy characterized space as a new frontier, invoking the pioneer spirit that dominated American folklore. He infused the speech with a sense of urgency and destiny, and emphasized the freedom enjoyed by Americans to choose their destiny rather than have it chosen for them. Although he called for competition with the Soviet Union, he also proposed making the Moon landing a joint project.
  • [EVENT] Cuban Missle Crisis

    [EVENT] Cuban Missle Crisis
    It was a 13-day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union initiated by the American discovery of Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.
  • Mariner 2 (USA)

    Mariner 2 (USA)
    First successful planetary flyby (Venus).
  • Vostok 6 (USSR)

    Vostok 6 (USSR)
    First woman in space and first civilian in space (Valentina Tereshkova).
  • X-15 Flight 90 (USA)

    X-15 Flight 90 (USA)
    First reusable piloted spacecraft and first spaceplane [suborbital] (X-15).
  • [EVENT] Kennedy's Assassination

    [EVENT] Kennedy's Assassination
    35thPresident John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was riding with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife Nellie when he was fatally shot by former U.S. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald firing in ambush from a nearby building.
  • Period: to

    Project Gemini (USA) [2Yrs]

  • Voskhod 1 (USSR)

    Voskhod 1 (USSR)
    First multi-person crew (Vladimir Komarov, Konstantin Feoktistov, Boris Yegorov).
  • Voskhod 2 (USSR)

    Voskhod 2 (USSR)
    First space walk (by Alexei Leonov).
  • Gemini 3 (USA)

    Gemini 3 (USA)
    First piloted spacecraft orbit change (John Young and Gus Grissom).
  • Gemini 4 (USA)

    Gemini 4 (USA)
    First space walk by an American (Ed White).
  • Mariner 4 (USA)

    Mariner 4 (USA)
    First succesful Mars flyby, and first to return images of Mars.
  • Diamant A (FRA)

    Diamant A (FRA)
    First French satellite, first launched by a non-superpower (Astérix).
  • Gemini 6A - Gemini 7 (USA)

    Gemini 6A - Gemini 7 (USA)
    First orbital rendezvous without docking (station-keeping).
  • [EVENT] Death of Sergei Korolev

    [EVENT] Death of Sergei Korolev
  • Luna 9 (USSR)

    Luna 9 (USSR)
    First soft landing on another celestial body (the Moon) and first photos from another celestial body.
  • Gemini 8 - ATV (USA)

    Gemini 8 - ATV (USA)
    First spacecraft docking (Gemini 8 and Agena Target Vehicle).
  • Luna 10 (USSR)

    Luna 10 (USSR)
    First artificial satellite to orbit another celestial body (the Moon).
  • Gemini 11 - ATV (USA)

    Gemini 11 - ATV (USA)
    First direct-ascent rendezvous on first orbit. (Gemini 11 with Agena Target Vehicle).
  • Gemini 12 - ATV (USA)

    Gemini 12 - ATV (USA)
    First demonstration of practical work capability during an EVA, and first 5.5 hours EVA.
  • [EVENT] Apollo 1 Fire

    [EVENT] Apollo 1 Fire
    It was the first crewed mission of the United States Apollo program, the program to land the first men on the Moon. Planned to launch on February 21, 1967, the mission never flew; a cabin fire during a launch rehearsal test at Cape Kennedy Launch Complex 34 killed all three crew members (Gus Grissom, Edward White, Roger Chaffee). The name Apollo 1, chosen by the crew, was officially retired by NASA in commemoration of them. Manned Apollo flights were suspended for 20 months.
  • [EVENT] Soyuz 1 Failure

    Soyuz 1 was the first crewed flight of the Soyuz spacecraft. The flight was plagued with technical issues, and Komarov was killed when the descent module crashed into the ground due to a parachute failure. This was the first in-flight fatality in the history of spaceflight.
  • Kosmos 186 - Kosmos 188 (USSR)

    Kosmos 186 - Kosmos 188 (USSR)
    First docking of two remote-controlled spacecraft (Kosmos 186 with Kosmos 188).
  • [EVENT] Death of Yuri Gagarin

    [EVENT] Death of Yuri Gagarin
  • Apollo 7 (USA)

    Apollo 7 (USA)
    First manned Apollo mission, and first live television broadcast aboard an American manned spacecraft.
  • Apollo 8 (USA)

    Apollo 8 (USA)
    First human-crewed spaceflight to, and orbit of, another celestial object (the Moon), and first human spaceflight to enter the gravitational influence of another celestial body (Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders)
  • Soyuz 4 - Soyuz 5 (USSR)

    Soyuz 4 - Soyuz 5 (USSR)
    First docking of two manned spacecraft (Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5), and first crew exchange in space (Yevgeny Khrunov and Aleksei Yeliseyev).
  • Apollo 11 (USA)

    Apollo 11 (USA)
    First humans on the Moon (Neil Armstrong and then Buzz Aldrin), and first space launch from another celestial body. Also, first samples from another celestial bodies returned to Earth.
  • Apollo 12 (USA)

    Apollo 12 (USA)
    First precisely targeted piloted landing on the Moon (Surveyor 3 site). Also first man to dance on the Moon (Pete Conrad).
  • Lambda-4S (JAP)

    Lambda-4S (JAP)
    First successful Japanese satellite launch (Ohsumi).
  • Apollo 13 (USA)

    Apollo 13 (USA)
    First explosion onboard a spacecraft. Crew survived thanks to the free-return trajectory (Jim Lovell, John Swiggert, Fred Haise).
  • Chang Zheng 1 (PRC)

    Chang Zheng 1 (PRC)
    First successful Chinese satellite launch (Dong Fang Hong I).
  • Luna 16 (USSR)

    Luna 16 (USSR)
    First robotic automatic sample return from another celestial body (the Moon).
  • Lunokhod 1 (USSR)

    Lunokhod 1 (USSR)
    First remote-controlled mobile vehicle (rover) on another celestial body (the Moon).
  • Venera 7 (USSR)

    First soft landing on another planet (Venus), and first signals from another planet.
  • Salyut 1 (USSR)

    Salyut 1 (USSR)
    First human-crewed space station launched.
  • Period: to

    Salyut Programme (USSR) [14Yrs]

  • Soyuz 11 - Salyut 1 (USSR)

    Soyuz 11 - Salyut 1 (USSR)
    First human-crewed orbital observatory (Orion 1), and 23-day manned space record.
  • Apollo 15 (USA)

    Apollo 15 (USA)
    First mobile vehicle lunar rover driven by humans on another celestial body (the Moon).
  • Black Arrow R3 (UK)

    Black Arrow R3 (UK)
    First successful UK satellite launch (Prospero).
  • Mariner 9 (USA)

    Mariner 9 (USA)
    First spacecraft to orbit another planet (Mars).
  • Mars 2 (USSR)

    Mars 2 (USSR)
    First impact into Mars.
  • Mars 3 (USSR)

    Mars 3 (USSR)
    First soft Mars landing, and first signals from Mars surface.
  • Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D (USA)

    Atlas SLV-3C Centaur-D (USA)
    First human-made object sent on escape trajectory away from the Sun.
  • Pioneer 10 (USA)

    Pioneer 10 (USA)
    First mission to enter the asteroid belt and leave inner solar system.
  • Skylab 1 (USA)

    Skylab 1 (USA)
    Last launch of the Saturn V. First american space station.
  • Pioneer 10 (USA)

    Pioneer 10 (USA)
    First Jupiter flyby, and first to return images of Jupiter.
  • Mariner 10 (USA)

    Mariner 10 (USA)
    First gravitational assist manoeuvre, and first photograph of Venus from Space.
  • Mariner 10 (USA)

    Mariner 10 (USA)
    First Mercury flyby, and first to return images of Mercury.
  • [EVENT] Arecibo Message

    [EVENT] Arecibo Message
    It is an interstellar radio message carrying basic information about humanity and Earth sent to globular star cluster M13 in the hope that extraterrestrial intelligence might receive and decipher it.
  • ESA Foundation (EUR)

    ESA Foundation (EUR)
    Formation of European Space Agency, which pools the resources of several European countries.
  • Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (USA/USSR)

    Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (USA/USSR)
    First multinational human-crewed mission (Soyuz 19 and

    Apollo CSM-111). First multinational handshake in space.
  • [EVENT] Soyuz 23 Failure

    [EVENT] Soyuz 23 Failure
    Soyuz 23 arrived at the Salyu 5 station, but an equipment malfunction did not allow docking and the mission had to be aborted.The crew returned to Earth, but landed on partially frozen Lake Tengiz, the first splashdown in the Soviet space program. The capsule sank under the surface of the frozen lake, and recovery took nine hours owing to fog and other adverse conditions. The landing marked the only example of an unintentional splashdown of a manned spacecraft to date.
  • [EVENT] Death of Wernher von Braun

    [EVENT] Death of Wernher von Braun
  • [EVENT] Launch of Voyager 2

    [EVENT] Launch of Voyager 2
    Voyager 2 was launched to study the outer planets. It is the only spacecraft to have visited Uranus and Neptune. It contained a golden record with sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth, and are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life form, or for future humans, who may find them. It is sort of time capsule.
  • [EVENT] Launch of Voyager 1

    [EVENT] Launch of Voyager 1
    Voyager 1 was launched to study the outer planets. It studied the weather, magnetic fields, and rings of Jupiter and Saturn and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons. It contained a golden record with sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth, and are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life form, or for future humans, who may find them. It is sort of time capsule.
  • Voyager 1 (USA)

    Voyager 1 (USA)
    First encounters with Five Jovian moons, and discovery of volcanism on Io. Also, returned photos from the Jovian moons and Jupiter.
  • Pioneer 11 (USA)

    Pioneer 11 (USA)
    First Saturn flyby, and first photographs of Titan from Space.
  • Voyager 1 (USA)

    Voyager 1 (USA)
    Saturn flyby, close encounter of Titan and encounters with a dozen others.
  • STS-1 (USA)

    STS-1 (USA)
    First reusable piloted spacecraft and first spaceplane [orbital] (Space Shuttle).
  • Salyut 7 - EP-2 (USSR)

    Salyut 7 - EP-2 (USSR)
    First mixed gender crew aboard space station, and first woman on space station (Svetlana Savitskaya).
  • Pioneer 10 (USA)

    Pioneer 10 (USA)
    First spacecraft beyond the orbit of Neptune and first spacecraft to pass beyond all Solar System planets.
  • STS-7 (USA)

    STS-7 (USA)
    First american woman in space (Sally Ride).
  • Soyuz T-10a (USSR)

    Soyuz T-10a (USSR)
    First time a crew was saved by the launch scape system.
  • STS-41-B (USA)

    STS-41-B (USA)
    First untethered spacewalk (Bruce McCandless II).
  • Salyut 7 - EP-4 (USSR)

    Salyut 7 - EP-4 (USSR)
    First spacewalk by woman (Svetlana Savitskaya).
  • Soyuz T-13 (USSR)

    Soyuz T-13 (USSR)
    First time a spacecraft had docked with a 'dead' space station, and the first time such a station had been returned to operational status following repairs (Salyut 7).
  • Voyager 2 (USA)

    Voyager 2 (USA)
    First Uranus flyby, and first to return images of Uranus.
  • [EVENT] Challenger Disaster (STS-51-L)

    [EVENT] Challenger Disaster (STS-51-L)
    This was the first major American space loss. An explosion soon after liftoff killed the 7 members: Francis Scobee, Michael Smith, Ellison Onizuka, Judith Resnik, Ronald McNair, Gregory Jarvis, and Christa McAuliffewho was a high school teacher that won the Teachers in Space Competition.
  • Mir (USSR)

    Mir (USSR)
    First consistently inhabited long-term research space station.
  • Period: to

    Mir Programme (USSR) [15Yrs]

  • Energia-Buran (USSR)

    Energia-Buran (USSR)
    First and only orbital flight of the soviet spaceplane "Buran".
  • Voyager 2 (USA)

    Voyager 2 (USA)
    First Neptune flyby, and first to return images of Neptune.
  • Voyager 1 (USA)

    Voyager 1 (USA)
    First photograph of the whole Solar System, also known as "Family Portrait".
  • [EVENT] Roscosmos Foundation

    [EVENT] Roscosmos Foundation
    The Soviet space program did not have central executive agencies.The creation of a central agency after the separation of Russia from the Soviet Union was therefore a new development. The Russian Space Agency was formed by a decree of President Yeltsin. Yuri Koptev, who had previously worked with designing Mars landers at NPO Lavochkin, became the agency's first director.
  • Mars Pathfinder (USA)

    Mars Pathfinder (USA)
    First operational rover (Sojourner) on another planet (Mars)
  • Zarya [FGB] (INT)

    Zarya [FGB] (INT)
    First module of the International Space Station.
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    International Space Station (INT) [~32Yrs]

  • NEAR Shoemaker (INT)

    NEAR Shoemaker (INT)
    First orbiting of an Asteroid (433 Eros)
  • ISS Expedition 1 (INT)

    ISS Expedition 1 (INT)
    First mission to the ISS. Begining of continuous human presence in space.
  • NEAR Shoemaker (INT)

    NEAR Shoemaker (INT)
    First soft landing on an asteroid. (433 Eros).
  • [EVENT] SpaceX Foundation

    [EVENT] SpaceX Foundation
    In 2001, Elon Musk conceptualized Mars Oasis, a project to land a miniature experimental greenhouse and grow plants on Mars, in an attempt to regain public interest in space exploration and increase the budget of NASA. Musk tried to buy cheap rockets from Russia but returned empty-handed after failing to find rockets for an affordable price. On the flight home, Musk realized that he could start a company that could build the affordable rockets he needed.
  • [EVENT] Columbia Disaster (STS-107)

    [EVENT] Columbia Disaster (STS-107)
    The Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members. During the launch of STS-107, a piece of foam insulation broke off from the Space Shuttle external tank and struck the left wing of the orbiter. When Columbia re-entered the atmosphere of Earth, the damage allowed hot atmospheric gases to penetrate the heat shield and destroy the internal wing structure, which caused the spacecraft to become unstable and break apart.
  • Shenzhou 5 (PRC)

    Shenzhou 5 (PRC)
    First Chinese manned spascecraft, and first Chinese astronaut or "taikonaut" (Yang Liwei).
  • Cassini–Huygens (INT)

    Cassini–Huygens (INT)
    First soft landing on Titan.
  • Stardust (USA)

    Stardust (USA)
    First sample return from comet (81P/Wild).
  • Falcon 1 Flight 4 (SpX)

    Falcon 1 Flight 4 (SpX)
    First privately-developed liquid-fuel launch vehicle to go into orbit around the Earth.
  • [EVENT] Kepler Telescope Launch

    [EVENT] Kepler Telescope Launch
    It was launched to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars, and was named after astronomer Johannes Kepler. It was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit, and designed to survey a portion of Earth's region of the Milky Way to discover Earth-size exoplanets in or near habitable zones and estimate how many of the billions of stars in the Milky Way have such planets,
  • Hayabusa (JAP)

    Hayabusa (JAP)
    First sample return from asteroid (25143 Itokawa).
  • SpX-C1 (SpX)

    SpX-C1 (SpX)
    First private company to successfully launch, orbit, and recover a spacecraft (Dragon 1).
  • STS-135 (USA)

    STS-135 (USA)
    Last space shuttle mission.
  • SpX-C2+ (SpX)

    SpX-C2+ (SpX)
    First private company to send a spacecraft to the International Space Station (Dragon 1).
  • Voyager 1 (USA)

    Voyager 1 (USA)
    First man-made probe in interstellar space.
  • [EVENT] Death Neil Armstrong

    [EVENT] Death Neil Armstrong
  • Grasshopper Flight 1 (SpX)

    Grasshopper Flight 1 (SpX)
    First test of a vertical landing rocket (Grasshopper).
  • Rosseta (EUR)

    Rosseta (EUR)
    First man-made probe to make a planned and soft landing on a comet (67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko).
  • Dawn (USA)

    Dawn (USA)
    First orbit of dwarf planet (Ceres), and first spacecraft to orbit two separate celestial bodies.
  • New Horizons (USA)

    New Horizons (USA)
    First flyby of dwarf planet (Pluto).
  • ISS Expedition 44 (INT)

    ISS Expedition 44 (INT)
    First food grown and then in space eaten (lettuce).
  • Orbcomm-OG2 [F9 Nº20] (SpX)

    Orbcomm-OG2 [F9 Nº20] (SpX)
    First propulsive landing for an orbital rocket.
  • CRS-8 [F9 Nº23] (SpX)

    CRS-8 [F9 Nº23] (SpX)
    First vertical landing achieved on an autonomous spaceport drone ship at sea.
  • SES-10 [F9 Nº32]

    SES-10 [F9 Nº32]
    First launch and landing of a previously flown orbital class booster, and first recovery of a fairing.
  • Falcon Heavy Demo [FH Nº1] (SpX)

    Falcon Heavy Demo [FH Nº1] (SpX)
    First simultaneous landing of two orbital boosters, and first private company to launch an object into orbit around the Sun (Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster).
  • Hayabusa 2 (JAP)

    Hayabusa 2 (JAP)
    First operational rover on asteroid (162173 Ryugu).
  • VSS Unity VP-03 (ViG)

    VSS Unity VP-03 (ViG)
    First crewed spaceflight from U.S. soil since the Space Shuttle mission STS-135, and first astronauts since STS-135 to go to space from US soil (Mark Stucky and Frederick Sturckow).
  • New Horizons (USA)

    New Horizons (USA)
    First contact binary explored by spacecraft (Ultima Thule)
  • Chang'e 4 (PRC)

    Chang'e 4 (PRC)
    First soft landing on the far side of the Moon, first rover on the far side of the moon, and first germination of seeds on another celestial body.
  • VSS Unity VF-01 (ViG)

    VSS Unity VF-01 (ViG)
    First passenger of space tourism (Beth Moses). She acted as a test passenger, evaluating the experience for potential customers.
  • [EVENT] Artemis Program Announced

    [EVENT] Artemis Program Announced
    Vice President Mike Pence announced that NASA's Moon landing goal would be accelerated by 4 years with a planned landing in 2024. On May 14, 2019, Administrator Jim Bridenstine announced the name of the new lunar program to be Artemis, named after the twin sister of Apollo in Greek mythology.
  • InSight (USA)

    InSight (USA)
    First marsquake detected.
  • Event Horizon Telescope (INT)

    Event Horizon Telescope (INT)
    First image of a black hole (Messier 87*)
  • Arabsat-6A [FH Nº2] (SpX)

    Arabsat-6A [FH Nº2] (SpX)
    First landing of all three booster rockets, and the fairings, of Falcon Heavy.
  • Long March 11 (PRC)

    Long March 11 (PRC)
    First rocket launch from the sea.