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Foundations of American Government

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    John Trumbull Sr.

    The governor of Connecticut. The only governor to side with the colonists.
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    John Witherspoon

    Was a vocal advocate for the independence of colonist. Fought for religious rights. President of the College of New Jersey.
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    John Hancock

    Member of the Sons of Liberty in protest of the ridiculous taxation of the colonist (Stamp Act and Tea Act). The merchant was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence.
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    Charles Carroll

    The only Catholic to sign the Declaration of Independence. Last of the signers to die.
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    John Jay

    Drafted the first constitution and was president of the Continental Congress. At the Treaty of Paris, he was the key negotiator and ended the Revolutionary War.
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    Benjamin Rush

    Elected because of his successful practice (targeted for the poor) and for his writings for the independence of America. His left his war related activities after Washington confronted him for secretly campaigning to remove Washington from commander-in-chief. Known as the “Father of American Psychiatry”.
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    John Peter Muhlenberg

    Was a pastor who served in the Continental Army and became a congressman. In the Army, we was a general.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    A document written by Thomas Jefferson explaining why the colonist want to part with England. This document has been used as an outline for other countries who their independence.
  • “E Pluribus Unum”

    “E Pluribus Unum”
    Motto chosen by Charles Thomson to be displayed on the Great Seal. Translates to “Out of many, one”.
  • U.S. Constitution

    U.S. Constitution
    The revised version of the Articles of Confederation that splits the government into 3 branches. The first 10 amendments of the Bill of Rights were added in 1791.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    A document written by James Madison containing 10 amendments that were added to the Constitution. These amendments were established to limit the government’s powers, provide rights for the colonist, and enforce fairness in court.
  • Fifth Amendment

    Fifth Amendment
    Requires due process (equal treatment in the judicial system), double jeopardy (cannot be tried twice for the same offense), and self-incrimination. They must also have a grand jury.
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    Alex de Tocqueville

    Wrote an analysis called “Democracy in America” about the political and social system of America.
  • de Tocqueville’s Five Principles

    de Tocqueville’s Five Principles
    Liberty (freedom), Egalitarianism (equality), Individualism (pursue own goals), Populism (act in politics), and Laissez-faire (lazy government)
  • Eminent Domain

    Eminent Domain
    the government can make/use private property for public use if they pay the owners.
  • “In God We Trust"

    “In God We Trust"
    Replaced the motto “E Pluribus Unum” on coins around the Civil War.