Enlightenment book lamp

History of the Enlightenment

  • Period: Jan 22, 1561 to

    Francis Bacon

    A statesman and English philosopher who made the inductive method or Baconian method of scientific examination, which emphasizes review and reasoning as a way to come up with common results. His effort influenced Bacon’s next contemporary Rene Descartes.
  • 'The Greatest Birth of Time'

    'The Greatest Birth of Time'
    Francis Bacon wrote the document called Temporis Partus Maximus (‘The Greatest Birth of Time’).
  • Period: to

    Rene Descartes

    A scientist and French philosopher who transformed geometry and algebra. Also created the popular philosophical assertion “I think, therefore I am.” He reinforced a deductive technique to philosophy applying logic and math that continues to keep an ideal towards solving problems.
  • Passions of the Soul

    Passions of the Soul
    Descartes finished the working draft of (1646) Passions de l’ame (Passions of the Soul).
  • Essay Concerning Human Understanding

    Essay Concerning Human Understanding
    John Locke’s written document utilizes great impact on the age, through a satisfactory portion through the study of knowledge that it shows, which is at least absolutely dealing with abstract thought or subjects, as existence or truth. The origin of all our beliefs are from Locke. The construction of the idea towards human knowledge, in the feelings and arguments significantly go against the rationalists’ doctrine of natural ideas.
  • Period: to


    Salons are where guest who assemble in a room, especially an assembly, holding leaders within art, politics, society, etc.
  • Discourse concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Relgion

    Discourse concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Relgion
    Samuel Clarke, a significant rationalist British thinker from the early Enlightenment, manages to display in his writing to be opposed to Hobbes ideas specifically, that the total contrast between moral good and moral evil depends in the instant noticeable innate of things. Also, it stands of any supportive legislation by God or human beings.
  • Discourse concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion

    Discourse concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion
    According to Clarke, towards a few deeds, such as morally required or good, are considered “fit to be done” and others were not fit as established to the instant showing connections in which things stand to each other in nature, just as “the proportions of lines or numbers” are apparent to the rational perspective of a reasonable person.
  • Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times

    Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times
    The Third Earl of Shaftesbury, almost the same as Clark, is prompted by Hobbes’ thoughts for one’s self welfare and interests to apply a non-egoistic account of moral goodness. In a way, Shaftesbury interprets the moral feeling that goes about a important purpose in the principles of the succeeding Enlightenment thinkers such as David Hume and Francis Hutcheson.
  • Period: to

    David Hume

    One of the most significant figures in the area of skepticism and a Scottish philosopher, who asked why a faultless God would ever make a flawed world. Also, made a suggestion that our own feelings are flawed, leading all perspectives and honesties into inquiry. His skepticism confirmed very important to others, people like Immanuel Kant. Immanuel Kant, who was an influence that was involved in the transition away from the rationalist idea that finalized the Enlightenment.
  • Period: to

    Immanuel Kant

    David was a German skeptic philosopher. He manufactured on David Hume’s opinions and carried the school of knowledge to an even higher level. Kant believed that all humans are born with natural “experiences” that then display onto the world, offering them a view. Then, because no one really thinks what other people view, the idea of “reasoning” is not correct. Kant’s philosophies offered the hinder to the Enlightenment, productively criticizing reason as an incorrect method to thought.
  • The Spirit of the Laws

    The Spirit of the Laws
    “In every government there are three sorts of power: the legislative; the executive in respect to things dependent on the law of nations; and the [judicial] in regard to matters that depend on the civil law.”
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    When denouncing the British government equal rights to the colonies, Thomas Jefferson famously called for the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness in the Declaration of Independence.
  • Dialogues concerning Natural Religion

    Dialogues concerning Natural Religion
    As a master stylist in any genre, Hume's major philosophical works, published Dialogues concerning Natural Religion.
  • U.S. Constitution

    U.S. Constitution
    The legislative branch (Congress) makes the laws, the executive branch (the president) enforces the laws, and the judicial branch (the courts) interprets the law.
  • Critique of Practical Reason

    Critique of Practical Reason
    The main idea of Kant’s “critical philosophy” was involved with one of the written pieces called Critique of Practical Reason.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    Freedom of speech was provided for in France’s Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    In the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, it states, these rights are equality, liberty, security, and property. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    Religion, or the duty which we owe our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, n ot by force and violence; and therefore all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience.
  • Period: to


    one of the deistic or materialistic thinkers and writers of the 18th century French Enlightenment.
  • Period: to

    The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was a philosophic movement of the 18th century noticed by a denial of usual religious, political, and social beliefs and a value on rationalism.
  • Period: to

    Enlightened despots

    Enlightened despots were enlightened monarchs who supported the theories of the Enlightenment, especially its significance upon rationality, and offered them to their region.