Foreign Relations Milestones

  • Oct 12, 1492

    Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue

    Columbus Sailed the Ocean Blue
    In 1492, Christopher Columbus landed on modern America, beginning a new era of colonization.
  • May 1, 1493

    The Treaty of Tordesillas

    The Treaty of Tordesillas
    Ferdinand and Isabella were joint monarchs of Spain when Columbus "discovered" America. They feared the interference of Portugal, which was at that time a powerful seafaring nation and had been active in overseas exploration. The pope drew a "Line of Demarcation" 100 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    This treaty officially ended the hostilites of the French and Indian War. Britain gained all of Canada and all of what is now the United States east of the Missippi River. France lost all of its North American holdings.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.
  • Saratoga

    Saratoga was a monumental battle during the American Revolutionary War because the victory endured by the Americans was enough to convince the French to intervene on their behalf.
  • The Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris
    The final terms of the treaty were that the United States would be recognized as an independent nation by the major European powers, including Britain, its western boundary would be set at the Mississippi River, its southern boundary would be set at 31 degrees north latitude(the northern boundary of Florida), Britain would retain Canada but had to surrender Florida to Spain, and British private creditors would be free to collect any debts owed by U.S citizens.
  • The Jay-Gardoqui Negotiations

    The Jay-Gardoqui Negotiations
    John Jay began negotiating with Spanish minister Gardoqui a treaty that would have granted lucrative commercial privledges and benefit large east-coast merchants such as Jay- in exchange for U.S acceptance of Spain's closure of the Mississippi River as an outlet for the agricultural goods of the rapidly growing settlements in Kentucky and Tennessee.
  • The French Revolution

    The French Revolution
    When revolutionary France went to war with the European powers in 1792, Washington's response was a Proclaimation of Neutrality. Citizen Genet violated that policy by trying to encourage popular support in the U.S for the French government.
  • Jay's Treaty with Britain

    Jay's Treaty with Britain
    John Jay negociated a treaty with the British which attempted to settle the conflict at sea, as well as to curtail English agitation od their Indian allies on the western borders. The agreement settled few of the issues nd merely bought time for the new nation in the worsening international conflict.
  • The Treaty with Spain

    The Treaty with Spain
    Thomas Pickney was invited to the Spanish court to strengthen what Madrid thought to be a worsening position on the American frontier. The result was the Pickney Treaty, which was ratified by the Senate, in which the Spanish opened the Mississippi River to American traffic, including the right of deposit in the port city of New Orleans and recognized the 31st parallel as the northern boundary of Florida.
  • The XYZ Affair

    The XYZ Affair
    A three-man delegation was sent to France in 1798 to persuade the French to stop harassing American shipping. When they were solicited for a bribe by the three subordinates of the French Minister Talleyrand, they refused and their report of this insult produced American outrage.
  • Quasi-War

    President Adams suspended all trade with the French, and American ship captains were authorized to attack and capture armed French vessels. Congress created the Department of the Navy, and war seemed imminent but never turned hot.
  • The Barbary War

    The Barbary War
    Jefferson sent a naval force to the Mediterranean to break the practice of the North African Muslim rulers of extracting tribute from Western merchant ships. Intermittent undeclared war dragged on until 1805, with no settlement.
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase
    Napoleon obtained the old French trans-Mississippi territory from Spain by political pressure. Jefferson sent a delegation to Paris to try to buy New Orlean, lest the new French officials cloed it to American traffic. Napoleoon's defeat in Santo Domingo persuaded him that Louisiana could not be exploited, and indeed was now subject to potential American incursions, so he sold it to America for $15 million.
  • The Napoleonic Wars

    The Napoleonic Wars
    War continued in Europe between France under Napoleon and the European powers led by Britain. Both sides tried to prevent trade with their enemies by neutral powers, especially the United States. Napoleon's "Continental System" was answered by Britain's "Orders in Council." American ships were seized by both sides and American sailors were "impressed" into the British Navy.
  • Non-Importation Act

    Non-Importation Act
    This was basically an embargo against Britain because the British navy would not stop impressing US sailors and would not treat the American nation with respect.
  • The Embargo of 1807

    The Embargo of 1807
    Jefferson's response to the cry for was was to draft a law prohibiting American ships from leaving port for any foreign destination, thus avoiding contact with vessels of either belligerent. The result was economic depression, particularly in the heavily commercial Northeast. This proved to be his most unpopular policy of both terms in office.
  • Macon's Bill No. 2

    Macon's Bill No. 2
    This bill explained that if England or France removed their trade restrictions with the United States, then the United States would trade with that nation but not the other one.
  • The Treaty of Ghent

    The Treaty of Ghent
    With the European wars over, the major causes for the dispute with Britain had ceased to be important, so both sides were eager for peace. The treaty provided for the acceptance of the status quo at the beginning of hostilities and so both sidees restored their wartime conquests to the other.
  • Rush-Bagot Treaty

    Rush-Bagot Treaty
    An agreement was reached in 1817 between England and the U.S to stop maintaining armed fleets on the Great Lakes. This was the first "disarmament" agreement.
  • Treaty of 1818

    Treaty of 1818
    This treaty established the boundary for Oregon at the 49th parallel.
  • Adams-Onis Treaty

    Adams-Onis Treaty
    Spain had decided to sell its Florida territory to the Americans before they took it anyway. Under this agreement, the Spanish surrendered all their claims to the territory and drew the boundary of Mexico all the way to the Pacific.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    National revolutions had begun in Latin America, so in 1823 President Monroe included in his annual message to Congress a statement that the American hemisphere was "henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers". Thus began a 30 year period of freedom from serious foreign involvement for the U.S.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This treaty ended the Mexican-American War. After loosing to the Americans, the Mexicans were forced to negociate.
  • Oregon Treaty

    Oregon Treaty
    The Oregon Treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo officially ended the war with Mexico. The treaty was ratified in 1848 and in it, the United States paid $15 million for a Texas boundary on the Rio Grande, New Mexico, and California.
  • Gadsden Purchase

    Gadsden Purchase
    This land acquisition was made because the United States wanted to build a transcontinental railroad. The U.S needed to own all of the land it was building on to refute any conflicts with other nations or Native Americans. This purchase was made by James Gadsden, who was an ambassador to Mexico at this time.
  • Ostend Manifesto

    Ostend Manifesto
    The Ostend Manifesto was drafted by United States officials in 1857 and ultimately explained that Cuba was destined to belong to the United States.
  • Foreign Policy under Johnson

    Foreign Policy under Johnson
    There was a problem with Mexico and France when Johnson inherited the presidency. Napoleon III made Mexico the target of one of his foreign "adventures". When the Civil War was over, the U.S re-established the principles of the Monroe Doctrine and forced France out of Mexico.
  • Early Immigration Wave 1860-1890

    Early Immigration Wave 1860-1890
    During this era in American history, there was a wave of immigrants. These immigrants were mainly Scandinavian, but there were many types of European Immigrants as well as many Chinese immigrants. During this time, the Chinese Exclusion Act was also passed on the West coast because "natural born" Americans feared that the Chinese were taking their jobs, and the American culture was becoming increasingly Asian/European. Ellis Island and Angel Island were also formed.
  • DeLome Letter

    DeLome Letter
    On February 8, 1898, William Heart's Journal published a private letter written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Depuy de Lome, criticizing President McKinley by saying he was weak. This lead to bad relations between Spain and the US.
  • USS Maine

    USS Maine
    Coincidentally, just a week later, the USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor, Cuba, owned by the Spanish. 266 people died in total because of an accidental ammunition explosion on board. But, because of the bitterness between the two countries, tied in with the newpapers' yellow journalism, the accidental explosion was blamed on the Spanish, which raised both tensions and war spirit.
  • War with Spain

    War with Spain
    The financial cost of the war was $250 million. Eastern and Midwestern industrial cities tended to favor the war and benefit from it. Northeastern financial centers were more cautious about war until March 1898, and questioned the financial gains of wartime production at the expense of peacetime expansion and product/market development. Theodore Roosevelt favored this war, or any war at all during this time period, because he believed it would bring economic relief and was the duty of the US.
  • Spanish- America War, 1898

    Spanish- America War, 1898
    On May 1, 1898, a US fleet commmanded by George Dewey steamed into Manila Bay in the Phillipines and destroyed and captured 10 Spanish ships anchored there. There 381 Spanish died, while only 1 American life was lost. Second, in Cuba (May 19) , Americans captured San Juan Hill and El Caney Hill. Theordore Roosevelt and his "Rough Rider" friends got a taste of war in Cuba. 15% percent of soldiers in Cuba, like the 24 Infantry and 10 Calvary, were black.
  • Hawaiian Annexation

    Hawaiian Annexation
    In the 1860's there were many US sugar plantation owners in Hawaii. It was ruled by Kalakaua until 1891, when a woman named Liliuokalani came into power. She was hostile to Americans. In 1890 the framers of the McKinley tariff eliminated the duty free status of Hawaiian sugar. Sugar sales dropped by 40%. The planters overthrew Liliuokalani, proclaimed Hawaii independent, and requested US annexation. Cleveland was suspicious of the actions, but McKinley, who succeeded him, annexed Hawaii quickly.
  • Yellow Journalism

    Yellow Journalism
    Named after a cartoon in Hearst's newspaper, yellow journalism became a leading cause for the Spanish-American War. Yellow journalism exagerated stories to make the public more interested, so the newpaper companies could earn a profit. Both Hearst and Pulitzer took the story of General Weyler in Cuba, a general who was forcing Cubans into concentration camps, and spun it to get the public to have sympathy for the Cuban rebels.
  • The Spanish- American War (RESULTS)

    The Spanish- American War (RESULTS)
    On June 17, Spain asked for an armistice with the US. A peace treaty, The Treaty of Paris, was signed in December, recognizing Cuba's independence. The US paid Spain $20 million in exchange of the Phillipines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. From 1898-1902, America Leonard Wood and the US Army governed Cuba. He improved education and public health in Cuba, but violated the Teller Amendment, which said that America would leave Cuba after it reaches independence. In 1901, amry leaves after Platt Amendment,
  • The Philippines

    The Philippines
    After the Spanish- American War, McKinely set his sights on the Philippines, which would be a great gateway into the Chinese market. He and American general George Dewey met Emilio Aguinaldo, who wanted to overthrow the Spanish rule. With the help of Dewey and his weapns, Aguinaldo gained Filippino indepence, but was outraged to find that after signing the papers, he actually ceded the Phillippines to the US. This resulted in 3 years of bloody battle between the Filippino rebels and US troops.
  • John Hay Open Door Policy

    John Hay Open Door Policy
    John Hay started this "Open Door" Policy with China to ensure America will always have a place in the foreign market. He, and many other politicians and imperialists, felt that China should be open to every country and every country should have equal trading rights in a certain country even if they do not own it. As a result of this, many of the Chinese feel exploited, so theyt begin the Boxer Rebellion, where Chinese nationalists killed many Europeans in China.
  • Treaty of Portsmouth

    Treaty of Portsmouth
    The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War. The war happened because both Russia and Japan wanted Manchuria Bay in China. Roosevelt negotiated a peace treaty, and later won the Noble Peace Prize for his work.
  • The Coming of WWI (causes of the war) 1

    The war broke out in Europe, which was mostly due to the arm race, various European alliances (the Central Powers and the Allied powers), the strong nationalism displayed by the European nations that expressed support in the rights and interests of one's country, and the imperialist attitude of the European empires, such as the Ottoman empire, created conflict. This coupled with the assassination in Sarajevo created the attitude for war.
  • The Coming of WWI (U.S involvement) 1

    After war broke out in Europe, President Wilson urged the United States to be neutral both "in thought and in action" to the European conflicts. The Americans were grateful that an ocean seperated them from the conflict, and for the most part did not want to interfere. Wilson hoped that Germany would fail due to its militaristic attitude, but the major reason the U.S sided with the Allies was because of the major economic ties to Great Britain. The British also felt emotional ties to Britain.
  • Assassination in Sarajevo

    Assassination in Sarajevo
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie Ferdinand, duchess of Hohenberg, were assassinated in modern day Bosnia by a Serb named Gavrilo Princip, who was one Serb in a group of six assassinated. This was significant because Archduke Ferdinand was supposed to be the hier to the Austria-Hungarian throne. He was assassinated because the Serbs wanted to combine their people into one, united nation, as a Greater Serbia or Yugoslavia.
  • Assassination in Sarajevo 2

    Assassination in Sarajevo 2
    nation such as "Greater Serbia" or Yugoslavia.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    After a failed attempt from a French Compamy, Roosevelt and many imperialists wanted to build the Panama canal, but Columbia wanted more money than what America was giving for Panama. Luckily, Columbian rebels, including Philippe Bunua- Varilla, wanted to start a rebellion, and held stock in the French company. They started a revolution with the help of US, declared Panama independent, and gave America a section of Panama to begin building. It was completed in 1915, with over 6000 lives lost.
  • Espionage Act

    Espionage Act
    This was an act that outlawed "anti-war activiteies". This definition was somewhat broad, and so it led to controversies and dispute about whether or not the United States government has the power to take away freedom of speech during war. Two men arrested by this act were Charles Schenck and Eugene Debs. After appealing to the Supreme Court, the Espionage Act was upheld.
  • U.S institutes a draft

    U.S institutes a draft
    During World War I, America had its first draft. Men, both white and black were drafted to fight in Europe with the Allied Powers. This draft also symbolized the Progressive Era with science and technology because it was the first time IQ testing was used in the U.S Armed Services.
  • The Soviet Influence

    The Soviet Influence
    There was a communist revolution in Russia in 1917 and under Woodrow Wilson, the United States intervened to stop the Russian bolshevieks because he believed that the spread of Communism could be detrimental to international peace.
  • Period: to

    Dissent and Total War

    At this time period, the Americans that supported the war supported the idea of total war. There was hatred of all things German. German things such as Dachsunds were renamed by the Americans, and books were burned and music was banned. Pacifics were also targeted.
  • Wilson's Fourteen Points

    Wilson's Fourteen Points
    In an address to congress, Wilson presented this as the nation's plan for peace during WWI. The first five points called for open rather than secret peace treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, arms reductions, and a fair adjustment of colonial claims. The next eight points were concerned with the national aspirations of various European peoples and the adjustment of boundaries (i.e: creation of an independent Poland). The fourteenth point was the creation of the League of Nations.
  • Debate on Wilson's Fourteen Points

    Debate on Wilson's Fourteen Points
    Wilson had espoused the fourteenth point as early as 1916, which called for a "general association of nations" to preserve the peace. As the Treaty of Versailles was not ratified, the United States did not join the League of Nations, but the League of Nations did indeed come into existance in Europe. The American people opposed this and other points of Wilson's because they believed it risked involvement in another European War.
  • The Treaty of Versailles 1

    The Treaty of Versailles 1
    This treaty was created by "The Big Four" and the terms were that the war would be blamed on Germany, Germany had to pay $32 billion in reparations, Alsace and Lorraine would be returned to France, Germany would loose colonies, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire would fall and divide, Germany would have to reduce its army to 100,00 (CONT.)
  • The Treaty of Versailles 2

    The Treaty of Versailles 2
    Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Yugoslavia would come into existence, and Japan would take German islands in the Pacific and would be allowed to occupy Shantung, which was a German sphere of influence in China.
  • The Armistice 1

    The Armistice 1
    The German Chancellor, Prince Max of Baden, asked Wilson to begin peace negociations based on his concepts of a just peace and the Fourteen Points . Wilson insisted that the Germans must evacuate Belguim and France and form a civilian government. By early Nov. the Allied and American armies were advancing rapidly , and Germany was on the verge of collapse.
  • The Armistice 2

    The Armistice 2
    The German Emperor fled to the Netherlands at this time. Representatives of the new German republic signed the armistice on Nov 11th to be effective at 11:00 that day, and agreed to withraw German forces to the Rhine and to surrender military equiptment, including 150 submarines.
  • CPI Created

    CPI Created
    The CPI (Committee on Public Information) was created during World War I to help Americans begin to support the war. This helped WWI gain its nickname of the "Poster War" because all of the propaganda was aimed at making Americans support fighting for moral purposes in Europe. Created by George Creel.
  • Paris Peace Conference

    Paris Peace Conference
    This peace conference was convened in 1919 to create a treaty for the end of WWI. Germany was not invited to this conference because the Allies wanted revenge on the Central Powers (mostly France wanted revenge on Germany). The "big four" leaders at the PPC were Woodrow Wilson (USA), Prime Minister David Lloyd George (ENGLAND), Premier Georges Clemenceau (FRANCE), and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando (ITALY).
  • Henry Cabot Lodge on Wilson's League of Nations

    Henry Cabot Lodge on Wilson's League of Nations
    He was a U.S Senator that was against the League of Nations without reservations. He proposed reservations that included the US had the right to withdraw from the league, the US's Monroe Doctrine would never be questioned, congress will elect League Representatives, the US can build military at will, never obligated to pay money, and congress is the only entity that could declare war.
  • The Washington Conference

    The Washington Conference
    At the invitation of Secretary of State Charles E. Hughes, representatives of the United States, Great Britain, France, Japan, Italy, China, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Portugal met in Washington in August 1921 to discuss naval limitations and Asain affairs. Three treaties resulted from this conference.
  • The Five Power Pact

    The Five Power Pact
    This committed the United States, England, Japan, France, and Italy to end new construction of naval vessels, to scrap some ships, and to maintain a ratio of 5:5:3.1.67:1.67 for tonnage of capital or major ships in order of the nations listed. This treaty gave Japan naval supremacy in the Pacific.
  • The Dawes Plan

    The Dawes Plan
    American banks made laons of 2.5 billion dollars to Germany by 1930. Germany paid reparations of over 2 billion dollars to the Allies during the same period, and the Allies paid about 2.6 billion dollars to the United States on their war debts. This loan cycle was based on American banks.
  • Removing Marines from Nicaragua

    Removing Marines from Nicaragua
    American investment with Latin America nearly doubled in the 1920s, and relations with most nations in the region improved. Coolidge removed the marines from Nicaragua, but a revolution erupted and the marines were removed.
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    Kellogg-Briand Pact
    In 1927, the French foreign minister, Aristide Briand, proposed a treaty with the United States that would outlaw war. In August 1928, most major nations signed the treaty, which renounced war as an instrument of national policy. This was signed by Coolidge.
  • The Good Neighbor Policy

    The Good Neighbor Policy
    FDR and Secretary of State Cordell Hull continued with the policies trying to improve relations in Latin America. They formalized their position, calling it the Good Neighbor Policy.
  • The London Economic Conference

    The London Economic Conference
    An international conference in London in June 1933 tried to obtain tariff reduction and currency stabilization for for the industrialized nations. The conference failed for lack of American cooperation.
  • Recognition of Russia

    Recognition of Russia
    In an effort to open trade with Russia, the United States recognized Russia. Unfortunately, the financial results were not what the United States had hoped.
  • The Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act

    This was created by Secretary of State Cordell Hull, and was passed in June of 1934. It allowed the president to negotiate agreements which could vary from the rates of the Hawley-Smoot tariffs up to 50%.
  • Hitler Build up the German Army

    Hitler Build up the German Army
    In 1935, Adolf Hitler violated the terms of the Versailles Treaty and began to build up the army. This army would become extremely powerful and a kew group in World War II.
  • Anschluss

    In 1938 German tanks rolled into Vienna, Austria. The Austrians were very welcoming to the merging of Austria and Germany. This grew the German empire significantly.
  • Appeasement/ Munich Conference

    Appeasement/ Munich Conference
    At the Munich Conference, English Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain met with Adolf Hitler. At this conference, Chamberlain agreed to let Hitler and the German empire take the Sudetenland if they agreed to not invade other European nations. Hitler later broke this promise, but at the time Chamberlain was given credit for helping to resolve the issues for the Allies.
  • Germany Invades Poland

    Germany Invades Poland
    World War II begins when the German Empire invades Poland because the other European nations had alliances with Poland and tried to protect it from being taken over by the Germans. This began World War II because the Allied Powers were backing up Poland and declaring war on Germany
  • Smith Act

    Smith Act
    The Smith Act made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the government by force or to belong to an organization that was pro-communism or anti-American.
  • Destroyers for Bases

    Destroyers for Bases
    This was an agreement to give Britain fifty American destroyers in return for a 99-year lease on air and nval bases in British territories in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the Carribean. Roosevelt ordered the army and navy to turn over all available weapons and munitions to private dealers for resale to Britain.
  • Selective Service

    Selective Service
    This was the nation's first draft during a time of peace. Men ages 21-35 were registered, and many were called for one year of military training.
  • Lend-Lease Act

    Lend-Lease Act
    Roosevelt proposed that the US provide supplies to be paid for in goods and services after the war. This essentially changed the United States from a neutral to a nonbelligerent on the Allied side.
  • The Atlantic Charter

    The Atlantic Charter
    This described the post war world which was based on self-determination for all nations. It also supported the principles of freedom of speech and religion and freedom from want and fear, just like Roosevelt's Four Freedoms in early 1941.
  • Attacks on Pearl Harbor

    Attacks on Pearl Harbor
    On December 7th, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, sinking many American ships. After this event, the United States entered WWII by declaring war on Japan and then Germany. The United States wanted to remain neutral but could not do so after Japan attacked Pearl Habor. Following the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese attacked Guam, Wake Island, Singapore, Burma, and the Dutch East Indies.
  • Casablanca Conference

    Casablanca Conference
    The Casablanco Conference was the first war conference between the Allied Powers and was held in Casablanca, Morrocco. Initially, it was to be a Big Three meeting between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin, but Stalin backed out. Nonetheless, the conference ser the basis for the end of the war, decided on a Cicilian invasion, war strategies established terms for the unconditional surrender of Germany.
  • Tehran Conference

    Tehran Conference
    The Tehran Conference was a conference held in Iran between Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Franklin Roosevelt. Joseph Stalin feared defeat unless a second front was opened in Western Europe, so he urged Churchill and Roosevelt to work with him to open a second front. In 1944, another front was finally opened. Also discussed at this conference were Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, and the ideal post-war world.
  • Declaration of Cairo

    Declaration of Cairo
    This declaration called for Japan's unconditional surrender and stated that all Chinese territories occupied by Japan would be returned to China and that Korea would be free and independent.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    The Yalta Conference was between "The Big Three." Roosevelt wanted Soviet military support against Japan following the defeat of Germany and Soviet participation in the United Nations. Churchill was focused on securing free elections for Soviet-liberated countries in Europe. Stalin wanted to build a Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe to protect against future threats. In addition to these long-term issues, the three powers also needed to develop a plan for governing postwar Germany.
  • Victory Day in Europe (V-E Day)

    Victory Day in Europe (V-E Day)
    After the Battle of Berlin, Hitler committed suicide. After this, Hitler's replacement surrendered to the Allies. This made it possible for the United States to focus on the Pacific Theater
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    This conference was between Stalin, Truman, Churchill. They discussed German punishment, division of Germany and Austria and both capitals, Nazi war criminal prosecutions, restoration of German annexations, Provisional government was formed by Big Three in Poland. America also revealed to Soviet Union its nuclear capabilities.
  • Japanese Surrender V-J Day

    Japanese Surrender V-J Day
    The Japanese surrender ended World War II. The Japanese surrendered a couple of days after the second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
  • Period: to

    Cold War (Foreign Policy)

    During this time, the United States was in a cold war with Russia. There was never any fighting that actually took place between the U.S and the U.S.S.R, but each nation took steps to prepare for war. There was an arms space as well as a space race, and there were wars such as the Korean War and the Vietnam War in which the U.S and the U.S.S.R each backed a side and fought against each other, but it was never described as being a war fought by the U.S and the U.S.S.R.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    This was introduced by President Truman in 1947, who believed that the United States must support free peoples who were resisting communist domination. This doctrine called for finanical support, and once Congress approved it, Truman asked Congress to appropriate $400 million in military and economic aid for Greece and Turkey.
  • Nuremburg Trials

    Nuremburg Trials
    The Nuremburg trials tried and prosecuted many war-time criminals. Many of the criminals were Nazi officers, and were found guilty of crimes against hummanity.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    In June 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that the United States provide economic aid to help rebuild Europe. The representatives of Europe agreed on a recovery program which would be financed by the United States and European countries. The next year, the U.S provided more than $12 billion in aid.
  • National Security Act

    National Security Act
    This was passed in the aftermath of World War II. This act basically reorganized the American systems for intelligence.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    Stalin ordered a blocade of the city of Berlin in order to force the the Allies out of West Berlin the US and Great Britian flew supplies in to Berlin to keep the people from starving. This contiuned for 11 months untill the Blockade was lifted.
  • Race for the Superbomb

    Race for the Superbomb
    Throughout the Cold War, there was an arms race. Both the U.S and the U.S.S.R wanted to be prepared to fight each other, so they both kept creating more weapons, and more dangerous weapons. The U.S first created the super bomb, which threatened the U.S.S.R greatly, causing them to race to create a more intense bomb.
  • Creation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

    Creation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
    The Central Intelligence Agency was created in order to carry out covert operations for the United States in 1949. Other intelligence agencies and military intelligence still existed, but allowed the CIA to take more emphasis on the covert operations during the era of the Cold War.
  • Korean Armistice

    Korean Armistice
    After fighting the Korean War, the United States and South Korea signed an armistice with North Korea. This armistice left Korea divided along virtually the same boundary that had existed prior to the war.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    The Soviet Union created a NATO like organization in response to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This was a pact between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union, which was signed in Poland in 1955 and was officially called 'The Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance,' and provided that if any of these nations were attacked, the other nations would be their allies.
  • Suez Canal Crisis

    Suez Canal Crisis
    After the United States agreed to give money to Egypt to build the Answan Dam and refused to give arms, the country moved toward the U.S.S.R and recognized the Peoples Republic of China. Then after the U.S withdrew its loans, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal. France, Great Britain, and Israel attacked Egypt, but Eisenhower forced them to withdraw their troops to prevent a third world war.
  • Sputnik

    The USSR developed the first satellite, which intimidated the United States because they believed the Soviet Union could use the same techonology to fire balistic missiles into the United States from outer space. The U.S tried to develop a similar satellite, but failed before eventually sending their first satellite into space.
  • U-2 Incident

    U-2 Incident
    An American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union on May 1, 1960. The pilot. Francis Gary Powers, was captured and served time in jail before returning to America. At first, Eisenhower lied to the public, claiming that it was not a spy plane, but later took credit for the incident.
  • Ngo Dinh Diem killed

    Ngo Dinh Diem killed
    Previously supported by the US, in 1963, JFK allows a CIA coup to overthrow South Vietnam leader Ngo Dinh Diem. The US then supported the Vietcong, a communist South Vietnamese army, also trying to overthrow the leader. In 1963, Diem was killed, which lead to turmoil, power struggles, and the US sending in militay advisors.
  • Escalation in Vietnam/ Gulf of Tonkin

    Escalation in Vietnam/ Gulf of Tonkin
    The escalation in Vietnam began with a North Vietnam fight with US destroyers at the Gulf of Tonkin. Although Johnson declares the attackes unprovoked, they were. After that, LBJ goes to Congress to send in troops, and Congress does not declare war in Vietnam, but agrees to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which grants LBJ with unlimited authority and power in Vietnam.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    Operation Rolling Thunder was a series of bombing of North Vietnam, which disrupted help for Vietcong. The US used the Ho Chi Minh trail to severe supply lines between North and South Vietnam, but was dangerous for the US because the trail ran through Cambodia and Laos. It would only cause more problems if more countries got involved in the Vietnam War.
  • Warfare in Vietnam

    Warfare in Vietnam
    US warfare in Vietnam included the use of Napalm, known as liquid fire, a dangerous and deadly weapon seemingly unstoppable to enemies. Also used was Agent Orange, a pesticide which killed crops and affected the South Vietnam food supply, hindering the livlihood of many citizens and endangering not only the army, but the people too.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    The Tet Offensive was attack by North Vietnam and the Vietcong on various South Vietnam cities on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet). At this point in the war, the US public was skeptical that the US was winning the war. There was a "credibily gap" between the US and the government because the public thought they were being lied to. The Tet Offensive ended by the US saving the S. Vietnam cities, but at this point, LBJ is seen as a liar.
  • My Lai Incident

    My Lai Incident
    In a South Vietnam city in 1968, US soldiers went into the city of My Lai to look for the Vietcong. Although it was said that the Vietcong were in the town, almost all the people in the village were civilians. However, the US soldiers decided to gather up villigars, kill them, and burn down there houses. 300+ civilians were killed in this horrific massacre, which was kept secretive from the American public for 2 years. This lead to further hostility towards the war.
  • Nixon visits Communist China

    Nixon visits Communist China
    As a part of his detente foreign policy with USSR and China, Nixon agrees to visit China in an effort to ease tensions.
  • The End of the War

    The End of the War
    In 1973, after years of horrific fighting, the Vietnam War ended with the signing of the Paris Peace Accords, negotiated by Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho of North Vietnam. In the accords, the US would withdraw troops and prisoners of war would be released, there would be no military help for South Vietnam, and North Vietnam would be allowed to stay occupied in South Vietnam. The War Powers Act was created, which limited presidential authority. Overall, the War in Vietnam was a loss for the US.
  • Detente Foreign Policy

    Detente Foreign Policy
    Nixon introduced a new form of foriegn policy which would tremendously ease tensions between the USSR, China, and the US in the midst of the Cold War. Nixon introduced "Ping Pong Diplomacy", agreed to the ABM and SALT treaties with the USSR, created a peace treaty during the Yom Kipur War, and created the Nixon Doctrine, which said that the US will support non-communist countries without military.
  • Mayaguez Incident

    Mayaguez Incident
    Less than two weeks after the Communist conquest of South Vietnam, forces of the Communist Khmer Rouge in Cambodia attacked and seized an American merchant ship, the Mayaguez, and captured the crew. President Gerald Ford reacted by sending in the Marines to rescue the crew. 40 Americans died in total.
  • Helsinki Accords

    Helsinki Accords
    The Helsinki Accords were documents agreed to by the US, Canada, and many European Nations that recognized the borders made in European nations as found in World War II.
  • The Invasion of Grenada

    The Invasion of Grenada
    The invasion of Grenada in late 1983 can be seen as a small part of the rivalry between the U.S. and Cuba during the Reagan years. There was a anti-US government, one close with Fidel Castro in Cuba, which came to power in Grenada, which Reagan took as a threat. As a respnse, Reagan sends in a coup to invade Grenada and overthrow the government, leading to more tension between US and Cuba.
  • Iran- Contra Affair

    Iran- Contra Affair
    The scandal began when th Hezbollah terrorist group held US hostages in Lebanon. Iran wanted weapons from the US in return for stopping the Hezbollah, but the US is unable to do that because Iran is at war with Iraq, and the US is already supplying Iraq. However, Reagan decides to send weapons indirectly to Iran, using Israel a mid-way. The profit from the sales from the missiles was used by Oliver North to help the Contra's overthrow the marxist Sandinista govt in Nicaragua.Reagan seems senile
  • INF

    The INF Treaty, or the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, is a agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union which disarms some nuclear weapons in Europe.
  • Persian Gulf War

    Persian Gulf War
    The Persian Gulf War, codenamed Operation Desert Storm was a UN-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Kuwait was invaded by the US and colalition in 2 days, in which the Iraqi army was stopped, ending in a colalition victory. However, Saadam Hussain was still in power in Iraq, but the UN put more sanctions on Iraq. At the end of this war, Bush loses a lot of popularity in the US.
  • Troops in Somalia

    Troops in Somalia
    The disasterous attempt to help Somalian people in 1992 lead to a bad situation. The US troops went into Somalia to try to feed the people, but a US helicopter crashed. The surviving men on the helicopter were captured and tortured. This even served as a rude awakening to America and Clinton.
  • World Trade Center Bombing

    World Trade Center Bombing
    The 1993 World Trade Center bombing occurred on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb was detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center. The bombing was intended to knock down both towers, but was too weak to do so, but it did kill six people and injured more than a thousand.
  • Air Strikes in Bosnia

    Air Strikes in Bosnia
    The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia was an air campaign by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) against the Bosnian Serbs during the Bosnian War.
  • USS Cole Bombing

    USS Cole Bombing
    The USS Cole bombing was a suicide attack against the United States Navy destroyer USS Cole while it was harbored in the Yemen. Seventeen American sailors were killed, and 39 were injured. The terrorist organization al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attack.
  • September 11, 2001

    September 11, 2001
    9/11 consisted of a series of suicide attacks by Al Qaeda. Al Qaeda targeted the Pentagon and the World Trade Centers by hijacking planes, killing thousands. After these horrific terrorist attacks, America began to see outbursts of patriotism and a statement by George W. Bush, seeking revenge on Al Qaeda.
  • Iraq War

    Iraq War
    The Iraqi War started in 2003 under Bush and ended just last year under Barack Obama's administration. Bush invaded Iraq in 2003 because of a suspicsion of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, even though not many were found. The UN does not support this war, nor is there a strong colalition of nations as there was in 1991. By the end of the war, Hussain is out of power (executed in 2006), and Iraq now has an unstable democracy.