Only weathly could afford fashinable clothing. The people at the top of the class were the ones setting trends while the others folowed in order to gain approval.
Dressmakers and Tailors
Garments were all man-made or custom. Wealthy kept personal dressmakers secret so they wouldn't loose them. Rose Bertin was made the official court minister of fashion. Poor made own clothing.
Charles Worth was the father of couture (first successful independent designer).
Marked the beginning of technological advance in fashion and textile production. After Civil War the textile industry relocated to the south were most cotton was produced. Trade gave middle class money to spend. Businessmen wanted an image so they the suit was created.
Mass Production Clothing
Invention of the sewing machine made mass production possible. Womens fashion relfects social changes and mass production separtes women fashion from childrens fashion.
Fairs and bazaars were used by merchants to sell expensive goods to the wealthy. Since large number of people settled in towns, general stores were established.
First Department Store
Lord & Tayor and Macys were the first big department stores to open. The 19th century was the beginning of customer service.
3/4s of the American population lived in rural areas with limited stores were available. The extention of railroads allowed merchants to reach these customers with mail-order services. Montgomry Ward started a mail-order business with all things costing a dollar each.
Communication, Lesisure, and Industry
The desire for fashion increased due to the availability and advertising such as mail service, magazines, newspapers, telephones, automobiles.
First Fashion Magazine
Fashion magazines began to be published in France and England. Harpers Bazaar and Vogue began to be produced in the 19th century and are still around today.
Popularity of sports created a need for sportswear. Bloomers were a craze and worn under dresses. Pants became acceptable for women who rode horses. In the 1920s pants became fashionable and not just functional.
Working condition got so bad that unions were formed to change that. In 1900 the International Ladies Garment Workers Union formed.
World War I
Allowed women into the workforce taking over mens jobs and gaining new rights and practical clothing.
Paul Poiret-tubular dresses liberated women from corsets, 1st Paris couturier
Gabrielle (CoCo) Chanel-popularized "Garcon" with sweater and jersey dresses, 1st designer to make fashion pants for women
Jean Partou-created famous "Flapper" look.
Early 20th Century
By 1930s first women presidents for major retail firms had been installed, Dorothy Shavor and Hurtense Odiam. New reatialing approches offered higher end fashion.
These stores sold items at lower prices. Chain stores were becoming a national phenomenon in the 1920s. J.C. Penny opened.
With increase mobility mail order business was droppin of and retailers like Sears and Roebuck were moving near highways around growing suburbs.
Industrial production fell and many companies went out of business or bankrupt.
Americans spent more time at movies clearing their minds which brought fashion to eveyone. Katherine Hepburn and Marlene Deitrich popularized slacks, Clark Gable popularized sports shirt for men, and Gilbert Adrian became leading hollywood designer.
James Mainbocher was 1st American designer to be successful in Europe when he designed a wedding dress for bride of King Edward VIII and it became the most copied dress in the 1930s.
Post War Fashion
AMerica was isolated from Paris forced nation to find its own style and gave American designers more opportunity and recognition. Claire McCardell orginated the American look inspired by farmers, enggineers, soldiers, and sport men.
Youth oriented market
Late 60s and 1970s
designer jeans, khaki shorts, polo shirts, button down shirts. preppy look. Women wanted equality in business world and adopted conservative business suits. Rolex, gucci, louis vuitton
power suit-structure but elegant, brand names, retailing, fashion global phenomenon.
discount stores like Walmart became successful and retailers began using value and private label collections to competee. grunge look was the antifashion statement. Menswear grown bc of relaxed corporate dress codes.
Ppl in all parts of world were wearing similiar looks bc of same retail stores opening. Celebrity infuenced fashion. Less clothing bought bc of elctronics and assories. Styles went and came back.