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Expanding the New Nation

  • Spoils System

    Spoils System
    Jackson, after his victory, gives government jobs to those who voted for him.
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    Expanding the New Nation

  • The Corrupt Bargain

    The Corrupt Bargain
    When neither Andrew Jackson nor John Quincy Adams could secure a majority of the votes, the decesion was left in the hands of the House Of Representatives. Henry Clay, the current speaker of the House, convinced his fellow members to elect Adams. After his victory, Adams made Clay his Secretary of State.
  • American Temperance Society Formed

    American Temperance Society Formed
    This large group, which had over a million members after ten years, pushed for the legal banning of alcoholic drinks. The ATS also supported women's rights and abolition which usually only made it popular in the North.
  • Tariff of 1833

    This Tariff, meant to protect Northern Industry from foreign goods, put a 60% tax on most foreign items. This upset the South; it made it much harder to trade with Britain who now could not pay for the southern cotton. This began the Nullification Crisis.
  • Indian Removal Act Signed by Jackson

    Indian Removal Act Signed by Jackson
    In theory the removal of the five civilized tribes was supposed to be voluntary, however many tribes were pressured into this movement. Christian Missionaries were generally opposed to the removal but Southerners were elated to get their hands on the land owned by the Natives.
  • Jackson ignores Supreme Court

    Jackson ignores Supreme Court
    When John Marshall and the Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokee Nation could remain where they were, Jackson claimed that if Marshall wanted his judgement to be enforced he needed to enforce it himself.
  • The first Liberator issue is sent out

    The first Liberator issue is sent out
    William Lloyd Garrison published this anti-slavery newspaper in Boston, and gained recognition for his want to immediatly free all slaves. The Liberator only had about 3000 subscribers, most of whom were African-American.
  • Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion
    Nat Turner caused an uprising in Virginia along with 70 other blacks, some freed some not. Around 57 whites were killed by the rebellion, the largest number killed in any slave rebellion. The panic caused by this event caused the formation of small militias in Southern towns and laws prohibiting education and assembly for blacks. In the aftermath of all of this, between 100 and 200 blacks were killed most of whom were innocent. Nat Turner was executed two months later.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    After the Indian Removal Act and the Cherokee's court case, the five civilized trives were sent on a ong journey to Oklahoma which was their new assigned land. The trip took tens of thousands of Indians' lives.
  • Jackson Vetos the National Bank

    Jackson Vetos the National Bank
    When Jackson did not renew the bank's charter due to his personal distaste, the bank quickly collapsed. Jackson put the money into his 'pet banks' or banks run by his supporters. However, this also resulted in 'wildcat banks' which were illegally ran.
  • Tariff of 1832

    While Jackson and the North saw this as a compromise, the South still needed more improvement; they dismissed it.
  • Force Bill Enacted

    Force Bill Enacted
    President Jackson's Force Bill was made in response to South Carolina's refusal to collect tariffs during the Nullification Crisis. The bill allowed Jackson to use whatever force he wanted to make sure that the tariffs were collected; this bill was the first to deny the seccession of a state.
  • Whig Party Formed

    Whig Party Formed
    Made in opposition to Andrew Jackson and his democratic party; the whigh party had members such as Daniel Webster, William Henry Harrison, and Zachary Taylor. Henry Clay was the dominant leader and Abraham Lincoln was the leader in Illinois.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society

    American Anti-Slavery Society
    Founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappen, this society grew to around 250,000 members and published a newspaper entitled National Anti-Slavery Standard. However the society was usually met with violence; slavery was a necessary part of the US economy during this time. Eventually the group split into radical and conservative branches.
  • Tariff of 1833

    This compromise, made by Clay and Calhoun, was meant to appeal to the southern states and end the nullification crisis. This Tariff allowed for a cut in rates through the years and it made some products duty free. This is believed to be the reason that military force was not necessary in the South at this time.
  • The Nullification Crisis

    South Carolina produced the Ordinance of Nullification, in response to the inadequate compromise in the Tarrif of 1832. This claimed that states could nullify any law given by the federal government if the state believed it to be unconstitutional. Jackson replied with the force bill.
  • Pickney Resolutions passed

    Pickney Resolution claimed that Congress was not in charge of slavery so they would not read or speak of any anti- or pro-slavery laws. This was known as a gag rule.
  • Twenty-First Rule established

    While the Pickney Resolution had to be revoted on every session, the twenty-first rule was set in stone. All abolitionist petitions were now tabled, and eventually the size of the papers grew to around five feet.
  • William Henry Harrison

    William Henry Harrison
    The president with the longest inaugral speech and shortest time in office, Harrison was the second oldest man to take office. In order to show his ability to still lead at his age, he made a lengthy speech on a rainy day to prove his youth.
  • Harrison Dies

    Harrison Dies
    After his long speech in the rain, Harrison grew ill with a cold that turned into pneumonia. This caused his death and made his presidency the shortest.
  • Polk defeats Clay

    Polk defeats Clay
    James K. Polk, a democrat, won the election due to his promise to annex Texas. This win was significant because he beat out Whig favorite Henry Clay
  • Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave is published

    Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave is published
    Douglass' book recieved much acclaim by the American, British, and Irish public. He sold an abundant amount of copies, adding up to around 30 thousand by 1860. The details discuessed in the book allowed for Douglass, whom was an excellent speaker, talk about more radical subjects.
  • Second Great Awakening Peaks

    Church attendence soars and reform groups once again make an appearence.
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    Texas was annexed into the Union as the 28th state, as Polk promised.
  • Hudson River School Opens

    Hudson River School Opens
    The first art school in the US was influenced by the reform movements.
  • Oregon Boundry Dispute Settled

    Congress agreed to pass a resolutions with the British governemnt in order to end the Oregon dispute
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    The war was sparked in the wake of the US annexing Texas, which Mexico still believed to be their territory despite the Texas Revolution. The war lasted nearly two years and resulted in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which forced Mexico to give some land to the US.
  • The Wilmot Proviso

    This would have banned slavery in all lands aquired from Mexico in the Mexican American War.
  • Dorthea Dix

    Dorthea Dix
    Dix was part of the American Reform Movement. She studied the mentally ill and through government funds built the first generation of American Mental Asylums.
  • Battle of Buena Vista

    The American Troops, led by future president Zachary Taylor, had a major victory and kept back the advancinging Mexican Army. This was a decisive point in the war.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    James W. Marshall was at Sutter's Mill in California when he struck gold. Around 300,000 people, called 'forty-niners,' flooded to California in hopes of becoming rich. While the amount of gold collected would be worth billions today, few got rich and many had just a bit more than what they started with.
  • War with Mexico ends

    American Victory in the Mexican-American War. Many war heros later become presidents
  • Horace Mann

    Horace Mann
    Mann served in both the House and Senate but is known to be the father of education in the United States. He toured schools and set up his six points of education
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The first American Women's Rights Convention. Elizabeth Cady Staton authored and read her Declaration of Sentiments.
  • Free Soil Party

    The Free Soil Party wanted to exclude slavery out of westward movement. They believed that free men on free soil would be economically superior to slavery. However, the party only lasted during the 1848 and 1852 elections, then it was absorbed mostly by the Republican Party.
  • Zachary Taylor takes office

    Zachary Taylor takes office
    Taylor, depsite his vauge political ideals, was elected due to his heriosm during the Mexican-American War. He planned to address the slavery issue in the Southwest, but he died only 16 months into his term.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    Tubman, known for her work in the Underground Railroad, transported runaway slaves to Canada where slavery had already been abolished. She was also a scout during the Civil War and was the first woman to lead an armed expedtion.
  • Millard Fillmore takes office

    Millard Fillmore takes office
    After Taylor's death, Fillmore took office. Fillmore was the last president from the Whig party, after leaving office he joined the Know-Nothing Party. Fillmore's most powerful move of his presidency was his signing of the Compromise of 1850 that included the Fugitive Slave Law.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 made it possible to avoid uneven representation in Congress due to the number of free and slave states. It stated that for every slave state a free state must enter the Union and vice versa. It also inacted the Fugitive Slave Law, which required law enforcement to capture every runaway slave and return them to the South. This sparked abolitionist movements.
  • Fugitive Slave Law

    Fugitive Slave Law
    Enacted along with the Compromise of 1850, "the bloodhound law" as abolitionists called it required that all runaway slaves must be returned to their masters. This controversal event fuled Northern Free Soilers fear of a slave power consipiracy.
  • Maine Law

    Maine was the first state to become "dry" or not allow alcoholic beverages exept for medical purposes. This law was very unopopular with the working class and immigrants. By 1855, twelve other states had joined Maine.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin Published

    Uncle Tom's Cabin Published
    Harriet Beecher Stowe's book was the "second best-selling book in the world during the nineteenth century, second only to the Bible." She wrote the book based off the anger she felt over the passing of the Fugitive Slave Law. This book aided abolitionists in gaining members and those in the North began to feel sympathy for the slaves.
  • Franklin Pierce elected President

    Franklin Pierce elected President
    Pierce, who claimed to be a Democrat but was later abandoned by the party, was a low rated president due to the many tough decisions he was forced to make. He was claimed to be a Northern Man with Southern sympathies. After his presidency, he put his allegience with the Confederacy.
  • Gadsen Purchase

    The last major land acquisition to the United States, the Gadsen Purchase was bought from Mexico; it included pieces of present day New Mexico and Arizona. The purchase was signed by James Gadsen, the US ambassador to Mexico at the time.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty, which ended the Mexican-American War, called for the US to pay around $18 Million to Mexico. In exchange, America gained the Rio Grande for a border and a large chunk of land including parts of Texas, California, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. The Mexicans occupying these areas had the chance to stay and gain citizenship; around 90% remained.
  • "Bleeding Kansas"

    "Bleeding Kansas"
    Kansas served as a proxy for the ongoing fight between those who were pro-slavery and abolitionists. Kansas found itself with "border ruffians" whom would jump the state line and vote as many times as they could. At one point, the state had two seperate governments with their own constitutions. Riots and fights raged on from a time period of 1854-1861.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Allowed states to use popular sovereignty to determine whether the state would be a free or slave state. This act also revoked the Missouri Compromise
  • Sumner Brooks Clash

    Senatory Sumner, an abolitionist from Massachusetts, made several speechers attacking people whom were pro-slavery. Senator Brooks from South Carolina later approached him at his desk and beat him with an eleven-ounce cane until it broke; no other senators got involed. The House of Representatives could not get enough votes to expel Brooks, who was later reelected and showered with gifts which were usually canes. Sumner was injured and had to leave the Senate.
  • Pottawatomie massacre

    Pottawatomie massacre
    John Brown and his abolitionist follwers brutally killed five settlers in Franklin County, Kansas. They did this in response to the sacking of Lawerence.
  • Buchanan is elected president

    James Buchanan, a member of the Democratic party, spent most of his presidency trying to put out the fires sparked between slave and free state radicals.
  • Dred Scott V Sanford Case Resolved

    Dred Scott V Sanford Case Resolved
    This case ruled in the favor of Sanford claiming that Scott was his property so the owner could bring him where he desired. Also, Scott could not sue because he was technically regarded as property. This case made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.
  • Panic of 1867

    Due to the failure of the Ohio Trust Company which held a significant amount of mortgages and the dramatic fall in grain prices hurt the US economy and resulted in the Panic
  • Tariff of 1857

    This was the lowest Tax cut of its time; it amended the Walker Tariff of 1846.
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    Lincoln and Douglas agreed to participate in 7 different debates. The main issue of these debates was slavery;the debates were heavily covered by the news.
  • John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

    John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry
    Abolitionist John Brown led 21 men on an attack on Harpers Ferry; he captured several buildings and hoped to start a slave uprising in the South. HE was laterr said to be the abolitionist that attracted the most attention.
  • Lincoln Wins Presidency

    Lincoln Wins Presidency
    While he won his presidency during 1860, he did not enter office until 1861. His victory sent Confederate States into a secession frenzy.
  • Works Cited

    "A map of the United States showing westward expansion and the main routes used by explorers." UXL Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Vol. 8. Detroit: UXL, 2009. Student Resources in Context. Web. 20 May 2013. "Andrew Jackson depicted during the Battle of New Orleans, which had two thousand British casualties..." UXL Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Vol. 8. Detroit: UXL, 2009. Stude
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    "Andrew Jackson." Civil Rights in America. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 26 May 2013. "Brigadier General Taylor, Commander of U.S. Forces on the Rio Grande." Westward Expansion. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 26 May 2013.
    "Dix, Dorothea." UXL Biographies. Detroit: U*X*L, 2010. Student Resources in Context. Web. 27 May 2013.
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    "Expulsion of Negroes and Abolitionists from Tremont Temple." The African-American Experience. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 26 May 2013. "Fillmore, Millard." UXL Biographies. Detroit: U*X*L, 2010. Student Resources in Context. Web. 27 May 2013. "Franklin Pierce. - LIBRARY OF CONGRESS." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 7. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 27 May 2013.
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    "Frederick Douglass." African American Almanac. Ed. Brigham Narins. 10th ed. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Student Resources in Context. Web. 26 May 2013. "Harriet Tubman." Activists, Rebels and Reformers. Ed. Diane Sawinski. Detroit: UXL, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 27 May 2013. "Horace Mann." Activists, Rebels and Reformers. Ed. Diane Sawinski. Detroit: UXL, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 27 May 2013. "Jackson Slaying the Many-Headed Monster." The Constitution and Supreme
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    "John Brown." Activists, Rebels and Reformers. Ed. Diane Sawinski. Detroit: UXL, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 27 May 2013. "John Marshall." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 6. Detroit: Gale, 2011. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 26 May 2013. Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas A. Bailey.
    The American Pageant: A History of the Republic. 12th
    ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001.
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    "On the Mexican Border Again." Westward Expansion. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 26 May 2013. "PRIMARY SOURCE: Temperance Protest: Ilustration showing temperance crusaders praying outside a New..." Government, Politics, and Protest: Essential Primary Sources. Ed. K. Lee Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, and Adrienne Wilmoth Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2006. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 26 May 2013.
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    "Prospective Miners During the California Gold Rush." Gale Student Resources in Context. Detroit: Gale, 1849. Student Resources in Context. Web. 27 May 2013. "Representative Henry Clay of Kentucky championed independence for Latin America during his political career." Hispanic American Almanac: A Reference Work on Hispanics in the United States. Ed. Sonia Benson. 3rd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Student Resources in Context. Web. 21 May 2013.
  • Works Cited

    "The Compromise of 1850 - The Compromise of 1850 was negotiated amongst the most formidable..." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 27 May 2013. "The Compromise of 1850 included the Fugitive Slave Act, which mandated that citizens assist in the..." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 27 May 2013.
  • Works Cited

    "The Compromise of 1850 included the Fugitive Slave Act, which mandated that citizens assist in the..." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 27 May 2013. "The Destruction of the City of Lawrence, Kansas." The Civil War. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 27 May 2013.
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    "The Destruction of the City of Lawrence, Kansas." The Civil War. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 27 May 2013. "The route taken by Cherokees from southern Appalachia to Oklahoma in 1838 is called the Trail of..." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 7. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 26 May 2013. "The routes taken by Native Americans on the forced trip to their new home in Ok
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    "The Oxbow, 1836. Thomas Cole is considered the founder of the Hudson River school of art, and is..." Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Ed. J. Baird Callicott and Robert Frodeman. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2009. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 26 May 2013. "The Whig Party nominated General Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore as candidates for president and..." Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Ed. Donna Batten. 3rd ed. Vol. 10. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Oppos
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    "Turner, Nat." UXL Biographies. Detroit: U*X*L, 2010. Student Resources in Context. Web. 26 May 2013. "Uncle Tom's Cabin, Jacket Cover." Civil Rights in America. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 21 May 2013. "U.S. Troops Parade in Mexico City." The Native American Experience. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 27 May 2013.