Evolution of the National Citizenry

  • Naturalization Law of 1790

    Naturalization Law of 1790
    In 1790, the United States created their first naturalization law. It stated that free white people could gain their citizenship if they had lived in the US for a minimum of 2 years, and if they had "good character". New children under the age of 21 were also given citizenship. Why the United States has birthright citizenship - history. (2018, October 30). Retrieved February 3, 2023, from https://www.history.com/news/birthright-citizenship-history-united-states
  • First US Census

    First US Census
    The English were the largest ethnic group. 1 in 5 Americans are of African heritage.
  • Period: to

    Immigration Begins

    After peace was established between the US and Britain after the War of 1812, an immigration wave began, and lasted until the Civil War. The Irish accounted for 1/3 of all immigrants, and about 5 million Germans made their way to the Mid-West.
  • Steerage Act of 1819

    Steerage Act of 1819
    Because of the conditions of the ships while traveling over, people would arrive sick or even dead. They crowded many port cities such as Boston, New York, and Philidelphia. The act stated that there must be better conditions when arriving. And the ship captains must submit demographic information on the passengers.
  • Know-Nothing Party

    Know-Nothing Party
    The first anti-immigrant party was created as backlash to the increasing amount of German and Irish immigrants that were settling in the United States.
  • 14 Amendment Passes

    14 Amendment Passes
    The 14th amendment granted citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States. This included former enslaved people. It also guaranteed all citizens equal protection of the laws.
  • Naturalization Law of 1870 (updated version of 1790)

    Naturalization Law of 1870 (updated version of 1790)
    The naturalization law of 1870 granted citizenship and constitutional protection of African Americans, and also individuals with African background.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    This act banned Chinese immigrants from entering the United States. This happened due to the number of Chinese workers that came to America. They worked in gold mines, built railroads, and took agriculture jobs.
  • Immigration Act of 1891

    Immigration Act of 1891
    This act excludes the immigration of polygamists, people convicted of certain crimes, and the sick or diseased..
  • Ellis Island Opens

    Ellis Island Opens
    Ellis Island opened in the New York Harbor. More than 12 million immigrants entered the United States through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    This case inspired the US supreme court to decide if segregation was constitutional or not. Even though African Americans were citizens, they were still denied the same rights and freedoms as others.
  • Anarchist Exclusion Act

    Anarchist Exclusion Act
    This was also called the Immigration Act of 1903. It added four more classes that were eligible for deportation. They were anarchists, individuals caught/associated with importing prostitutes, beggars, and individuals with epilepsy or those who deal with frequent seizures.
  • Expatriation Act of 1907

    Expatriation Act of 1907
    If a woman born in the United States marries an immigrant who is not a citizen, the Expatriation Act of 1907 strips her of her citizenship.
  • Jones-Shafroth Act

    Jones-Shafroth Act
    Puerto Rico citizens were granted U.S. citizenship as Puerto Rico was officially acquired as U.S. territory. U.S. citizenship was given to those who were born on or after April 11th, 1899.
  • Emergency Quota Act

    Emergency Quota Act
    European immigrants coming to the U.S. had to have a quota of 3%. It was primarily created to reduce the overall number of immigrants coming to the U.S.
  • The Married Women's Independent Nationality Act

    The Married Women's Independent Nationality Act
    The Expatriation Act that took away a woman's citizenship if she married a man who was not a U.S. citizen was repealed. If a woman's husband was not eligible for citizenship, she could be denied, nonetheless.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    This act limited the number of Southern and Eastern Europeans to a 2% entry quota. All the while, Asian immigrants were still not allowed in/nor could they obtain U.S. citizenship.
  • Women's Citizenship Fully Restored

    Women's Citizenship Fully Restored
    Women were then allowed to marry non-U.S. citizens without the fear that their citizenship would be revoked or having to petition the government to win it back.
  • Alien Regestration Act

    Alien Regestration Act
    This act stated that "non-citizens had to register with the U.S. government so that the government would be able to track them and their un-American ideas which may or may not lead to the overthrow of the government."
  • The Bracero Program

    The Bracero Program
    This program allowed Mexican men to come to America legally under short-term labor contracts.
  • McCarren Walter Act

    McCarren Walter Act
    This act ended the exclusion of Asian immigrants to the United States.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    The Supreme Court ruled racial segregation as unconstitutional and a violation American rights. This ruling ensured that African Americans (and other races) would be treated as fairly, and properly as natural U.S. citizens should.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    This act prohibited the discrimination of civilians based on their race, sexuality, religion, or country of origin. This ensured equal rights of all U.S. citizens..
  • Immigration and Nationality Act

    Immigration and Nationality Act
    This act ends origin quotas that were made in the 1920's which had favored some races over the others.
  • Cuban Adjustment Act

    Cuban Adjustment Act
    This act meant that Cuban refuges could apply for U.S. citizenship but in order to do this they had to be native or a citizen of Cuba, inspected, and must be physically present in the U.S. for a year.
  • Immigration Reform and Control Act

    Immigration Reform and Control Act
    This act was created to deal with the amount of illegal immigration. They increased border control, increased the requirements of employers, and expanded guest worker visa programs.