Melting pot usa

Evolution of the National Citizenry

  • The Beggining of the Melting Pot

    The Beggining of the Melting Pot
    By the early 1600's, the Eastern seaboard was occupied by multiple communities of European immigrants such as the British in New England and Virginia, the Spanish in Florida, the Dutch in New York, and the Swedes in Delaware. Pilgrims and Puritans migrated for religious freedom and enslaved Africans migrated in multiple areas against their will.
  • The "Common Sense" Pamphelt

    The "Common Sense" Pamphelt
    In January of 1776, Thomas Paine published the "Common Sense" pamphlet which argued American independence. Paine no longer viewed himself as a Briton, he considered himself an American and he believed all white Americans of "good character" should be able to request citizenship which would grant rights and independence.
  • The Naturlization Act

    The Naturlization Act
    In March of 1790 Congress passed the first law concerning who should be able to be granted U.S. citizenship. The Naturalization act allowed any free white person of "good character" whom has resided in the U.S. for two years or better to apply for citizenship. As for nonwhite residents without citizenship, they were denied basic constitutional protections such as the right to vote, own property, or testify in court.
  • The First U.S. Census

    The First U.S. Census
    A census is an official count or survey of population. The first U.S census took place August 2nd, 1790. 3.9 people where counted, the English were the largest ethnic group and on in every five Americans were of African heritage.
  • Irish Immigrant Wave

    Irish Immigrant Wave
    The War of 1812 re-established peace between the United States and Britain. By 1815 Immigration from Western Europe escalated exponentially and. This shifted the demographics of the United States. By 1849 America's first anti-immigrant political party, "Know-Nothing Party," formed due to the abundance of immigrants settling in America.
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford

    Dred Scott v. Sandford
    Former slave Dred Scott, sued the executor of his former's masters estate in search of becoming a free man due to his master voluntarily taking him into free territory. His attempt to be classified free was denied in court due to Article 3 of the Constitution which limits both state and national citizenship to any African man or woman or slave descendant. Chief Justice Taney stance was strongly rebutted due to free blacks being viewed as citizens by many states.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    After the Civil War, the Republican Party controlled the 39th Congress and their first session began in December of 1865. At the time, white-dominated governments restricted the rights of former slaves through discriminatory laws named "Black Codes". The Republicans combated these Black Codes by passing the Civil Rights Act in 1866. This granted every person born or naturalized in the U.S. citizenship in the state which they lived regardless of their race.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    In 1880 a rapid growth of industrialization and urbanization took place. Due to the increase in opportunities, over a 40 year span more the 20 million immigrants arrived and majority of them were Chinese. Most of the immigrants settled in major cities for factory work. As Chinese laborers became successful, white workers began to blame Chinese immigrants for low wages. The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed to ban Chinese immigrants entering America. The first act to restrict an immigration group.
  • The Opening of Ellis Island

    The Opening of Ellis Island
    The Immigration Act of 1891 explains more in depth who can enter the U.S. If immigrants were polygamists, convicted felons, sick or diseased they could not enter. Immigration inspectors were stationed at ports of entry to enforce the Act. January of 1892, the first immigration station opened in New York Harbor, "Ellis Island". More than 12 million immigrants entered the U.S. through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954.
  • The Gentlemens Agreement

    The Gentlemens Agreement
    An increase of Japanese working fleeing to California costed white workers farming jobs and a decrease in wages. The U.S. constructed the "Gentleman's Agreement" which limited Japanese Immigrants to certain categories of business and professionalism. As collateral, President Theodore Roosevelt demanded San Francisco to end the segregation of Japanese and white schools.
  • The Immigration Act of 1917

    The Immigration Act of 1917
    By 1910, a major city such as New York had 75% of it's population immigrants and first-generation Americans. By 1917, Xenophobia (dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries) reached an all time high. To slow down the rate of immigrants new restrictions were set in place. The Immigration Act of 1917 established a literacy requirement and halted immigration from most Asian countries.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    The United states enforced the Immigration Act of 1924 to limit the yearly number of immigrants coming into the states. This new quota system granted 2% of each nationality visas. The law favored three countries, Great Britain, Ireland, and Germany.They occupied 70% of all available visas. Immigration from Southern, Central, and Eastern Europe was limited and immigrants from Asia were completely excluded.
  • U.S. Border Patrol

    U.S. Border Patrol
    With multiple Immigration Acts in effect it was difficult for immigrants to enter the states. By 1924 the number of illegal immigrants increased rapidly. The U.S. Border Patrol was established to stop immigrants from crossing the Mexican and Canadian borders in the states. As expected, majority of the border crossers were Chinese and other Asian immigrants who had been blocked from entering legally.
  • Bracero Program

    Bracero Program
    Due to World War II there was a great labor shortage. The U.S. decided to form the Bracero Program with Mexico which allowed agricultural workers to enter the U.S. temporarily. Shortly after the Bracero Program came the McCarran-Walter Act of 1952 which ended the exclusion of Asian immigrants entering the U.S.
  • Quota System Ends

    Quota System Ends
    The Immigration and Nationality Act overthrew the American immigration system. The national origin quotas formed in the 1920s that favored racial and ethnic groups over others came to an end. President Lydon B. Johnson stated the old immigration system was "un-American" and the new system will correct the United States cruel conduct.
  • The Simpson-Mazzoli

    The Simpson-Mazzoli
    President Ronald Reagan signs law that enforced the Simpson-Mazzoli Act. The Simpson-Mazzoli Act granted amnesty to more than 3 million illegal immigrants. In 2001 U.S. Senators Dick Durbin And Orrin Hatch proposed the DREAM Act (Development, Relief, and Education of Alien Minors). This provided legal status to undocumented immigrants brought to the states by their parents as children.
  • DACA

    President Barack Obama approved the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. The DACA protects the DREAM program immigrants from deportation but it does not provide a path to citizenship.