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Evolution of microscopes

  • Period: 1268 to 1289

    When eyeglasses were invented

    It is believed that eye glasses were invented in this time in Italy. The earliest models were worn by scholars and monks either held in front of the eyes or balanced on top of the nose. The inventor is unknown.
  • First compound microscope is made

    First compound microscope is made
    Father and son spectacle makers Hans and Zacharias Janssen experiment by putting two lenses in a tube.
  • Compound microscope is made with concave and convex lenses

    Galileo Galilei develops a microscope which uses convex and concave lenses. Convex is used in glasses for shortsighted people so they can see further whereas concave lenses are used in glasses for long sighted people to see closer for reading.
  • Book of upclose observations was made

    Book of upclose observations was made
    Robert Hooke makes a book called Micrographia that studies a wide range of objects under a microscope.
  • A more advanced microscope was made

    Anton van Leeuwenhoek created a very small microscope using his knowledge of grinding lenses to create greater maginification. This enabled him to be the first to observe and describe blood, cells and bacteria.
  • Making microscopes more focused

    Joseph Jackson Lister found out that if you mixed two lenses weak lenses together at certain distances then they can give good magnification without blurring the image. This made achromatic lenses which made light match up on the same focal length so that the image wasn't blurry.
  • A mathematical theory was made about how to get the highest resolution lenses

    A mathematical theory was made about how to get the highest resolution lenses
    Up until now getting high resolution lenses was mostly based on trial and error. Ernst Abbe made a formula connecting resolution and the wavelength of light together. This made maximum resolution possible.
  • Ultramicroscope is invented

    Richard Zsigmondy made the ultramicroscope which allows people to study objects below the wavelength of light.
  • The electron microscope was invented

    Ernst Ruska developed the electron microscope. This made resolution much higher and expanded our horizons for exploration greatly.
  • Scanning tunnelling microscope was invented

    Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Roher made the scanning that gives 3D images of objects all the way down to an atomic level.