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  • Tragic week

    Tragic week
    In 1909 there was a popular insurrection in Barcelona. The trigger sent to the war in Morocco of troops made up of popular classes, since the wealthy classes paid to avoid military service.
  • Canalejas padlock law

    Canalejas padlock law
    Law of the lock is the colloquial term, which is also used by historiography, to designate a law of December 1910, promoted by the president of the Spanish Council of Ministers, José Canalejas, which prohibited the establishment of new religious orders in Spain for two years. .
  • Ronald Reagan

    Ronald Reagan
    American actor and politician who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and the 33rd Governor of California from 1967 to 1975. He is the third-oldest president of the United States and the last one born before the First World War.
  • Crash of 1917

    Crash of 1917
    Several events coincided this year: the discontent of the military due to the discriminatory way in which promotions were produced, the political protest, with the convening of an assembly of parliamentarians in Barcelona...
  • Weimar Republic

    Weimar Republic
    The Weimar Republic was the political regime and period of German history from 1918 to 1933, following the country's defeat in World War I. The denomination comes from the city of Weimar, where the National Constituent Assembly met and the new constitution was proclaimed, which was approved on July 31 and entered into force on August 11, 1919.
  • Radicalization of the labor movement

    Radicalization of the labor movement
    Between 1919 and 1923, under the influence of the Russian revolution, worker protests intensified.
  • The Spartacist Uprising

    The Spartacist Uprising
    The Spartacist Uprising (in German Spartakusaufstand) is known as the general strike and the armed struggles in Berlin from January 5 to 12, 1919, which, when suffocated, practically ended the November Revolution.
  • Paris Conference

    Paris Conference
    Meeting in 1919 of the Allies after the armistice to agree on the terms of peace after the First World War with the countries of the Central Powers
  • March on Rome

    March on Rome
    Movement that the black shirts undertook from different parts of Italy to Rome so that Mussolini seized power in 1922.

    Politician and leader of the Italian fascism, he organised the Black Shirts that marched on Rome in 1922. He was named Il Duce.
  • Putsch de Múnich

    Putsch de Múnich
    Failed coup attempt of November 8 and 9, 1923 in Munich, carried out by members of the Nazi Party
  • Primo De Rivera's coup

    Primo De Rivera's coup
    Primo de Rivera's coup took place in Spain between September 13 and 15, 1923 and was led by the then Captain General of Catalonia Miguel Primo de Rivera.
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    Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera

    Political regime that existed in Spain from the coup d'état of the captain general of Catalonia, Miguel Primo de Rivera, on September 13, 1923, until his resignation on January 28, 1930 and his replacement by the "dictablanda" of the general Damaso Berenguer

    Book written by Adolf Hitler where he reflected the basic principles of Nazism while he was in prison after the failure of the Munich Putsch in 1924-1925
  • Alhucemas landing

    Alhucemas landing
    The Alhucemas landing was a landing operation which took place on 8 September 1925 at Alhucemas by the Spanish Army and Navy.
  • Fidel Castro

    Fidel Castro
    Cuban Marxist lawyer, politician, dictator and guerrilla fighter. After overthrowing the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista thanks to a guerrilla war during the Cuban Revolution, he exercised executive power in his country for almost 50 years, as prime minister and president.
  • The Pact of San Sebastián

    The Pact of San Sebastián
    The Pact of San Sebastián designates the meeting promoted by the Republican Alliance that took place in San Sebastián on August 17, 1930
  • 1931 Constitution

    1931 Constitution
    Approved on December 9, 1931 by the Constituent Cortes, after the Spanish general elections of 1931 that followed the proclamation of the Second Republic, and was in force until the end of the civil war in 1939.
  • Provisional Government 1931

    Provisional Government 1931
    The Second Spanish Republic was the democratic regime that existed in Spain between April 14, 1931, the date of its proclamation, replacing the monarchy of Alfonso XIII, and April 1, 1939, the date of the end of the Civil War, which gave way to the Franco dictatorship.
  • Sanjurjo's coup

    Sanjurjo's coup
    On August 10, 1932, the first failed coup against the Republic took place in Seville.
  • Exclusion

    First stage of the holocaust where the goal was to eliminate the Jews from public life and reduce their economic capacity.

    Politician and leader of the Nazi Party, he used his position as chancellor to impose the totalitarian dictatorship and stablished agressive, nationalist and xenophobic polices.
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    Premeditated, planned and systematic extermination of the Jewish communities in Europe that began with the arrival of Hitler to power in 1933.
  • Hitler is named chancellor

    Hitler is named chancellor
    On January 30, 1933, the president of Germany, General Paul von Hindenburg, influenced by the conservative politician Franz von Papen, appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor.
  • Reichstag fire

    Reichstag fire
    Fire used as a propaganda weapon against communism, getting a law passed that allowed him to extend the persecution of communists throughout the country.
  • The Conservative Biennium

    The Conservative Biennium
    Manuel Azaña resigned and new elections were called. The right united in the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Rights (CEDA), led by José María Gil Robles. The center right won the elections and, supported by the CEDA, the Radical Party of Alejandro Lerroux took over the Government. The governments of the Conservative Biennium modified or suspended reforms. The tension between left and right materialized in the October 1934 revolution that triumphed in Asturias
  • General elections of Spain of 1933

    General elections of Spain of 1933
    On November 19, 1933, the first round of the second general elections of the Second Spanish Republic for the Cortes was held and they were the first in which women exercised the right to vote.
  • The Revolution of 1934

    The Revolution of 1934
    Revolutionary strike movement that took place between October 5 and 19, 1934 during the second biennium of the Second Spanish Republic.
  • Hindenburg

    German soldier, statesman, and politician who largely directed German policy during the second half of World War I and served as President of Germany from 1925 until his death in 1934.
  • Night of the Long Knives

    Night of the Long Knives
    The Night of the Long Knives was a purge that took place in Germany between June 30 and July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political assassinations.
  • Nuremberg laws

    Nuremberg laws
    Laws that excluded Jews from German citizenship and prohibited marriages between German citizens and Jews
  • Popular front

    Popular front
    The leftist political groups appeared in the 1936 elections united in the Popular Front, made up of socialists, communists, leftist Republicans and some nationalist forces.
  • Francisco Franco

    Francisco Franco
    Spanish military officer and dictator, member of the group of senior officials of the military leadership that staged the 1936 coup against the democratic government of the Second Republic, leading to the Spanish Civil War.
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    War conflict that would later also have repercussions in an economic crisis that was unleashed in Spain and that would lead to a dictatorship.
  • Night of the Broken Glass

    Night of the Broken Glass
    Night in which members and assault forces of the Nazi party looted synagogues, homes and Jewish establishments.
  • Ghetto confinement

    Ghetto confinement
    Second stage where the Jews were confined in ghettos that were neighborhoods of the cities where the Jewish population was forced to concentrate, subjecting them to conditions of extreme poverty and shortages.

    Pact between Germany and the USSR which includes a secret protocol in which both countries shared Poland and the USSR obtained Finland and the Baltic States
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    Franco dictatorship

    Dictatorship that began in 1939 in Spain and lasted until Franco's death in 1975
  • German invasion of Poland

    German invasion of Poland
    The German invasion of Poland was a military action by Nazi Germany aimed at annexing Polish territory. It began on September 1, 1939, and the last units of the Polish Army surrendered on October 6 of the same year.
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    Global military conflict that took place between 1939 and 1945. Most of the nations of the world were involved in it.
  • The Battle of Britain

    The Battle of Britain
    The Battle of Britain is the name given to the set of air battles fought in the British sky and over the English Channel, between July and October 1940, when Germany sought to destroy the Royal Air Force (RAF) to obtain the air superiority necessary for an invasion of Britain, Operation Sea Lion
  • Retreat from Dunkirk

    Retreat from Dunkirk
    Operation Dynamo, also known as Dunkirk Withdrawal or Dunkirk Evacuation, was an evacuation operation for Allied troops from French territory (after France was defeated by the German army) during World War II.
  • Churchill speech

    Churchill speech
    In his first speech before the House of Commons, on May 13, 1940, he delivered his famous speech in which, after stating that he had nothing to offer the British people "except blood, sweat and tears", he managed to unite the people British in their war effort against Hitler.
  • The Call of June 18

    The Call of June 18
    The Call of June 18 is the name given to the speech that General de Gaulle gave on the BBC, the British government radio, on June 18, 1940. Since that day, this radio address has been among the most famous of the History of France.
  • Extermination

    Third stage where the definitive extermination of Jews in gas chambers was carried out during the holocaust between 1941 and 1945
  • Operation Barbarossa

    Operation Barbarossa
    German invasion of the Soviet Union, was the code name for the attempted invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany and some of its allies, which began on Sunday, June 22, 1941, during World War II.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    On December 7, 1941, Japan made a surprise attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Islands. The surprising Japanese maneuver caused consternation in the United States and led to the entry of this country into the war as part of the Allied side.
  • Battle of El Alamein

    Battle of El Alamein
    Battle of the Western Desert campaign of World War II, where the Axis forces, commanded by Erwin Rommel, and the Allied forces under the command of Claude Auchinleck fought.
  • Battle of stalingrad

    Battle of stalingrad
    Military confrontation between the Red Army of the Soviet Union and the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany and its Axis allies for control of the Soviet city of Stalingrad
  • Wannsee Conference

    Wannsee Conference
    Meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and leaders of the Schutzstaffel, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on January 20, 1942.
  • Midway war

    Midway war
    On June 4, 1942 Japan took Midway Island where the Japanese and American fleets clashed.
  • Battle of Guadalcanal

    Battle of Guadalcanal
    It took place between August 7, 1942 and February 9, 1943 around the island of Guadalcanal in the framework of the Pacific front of World War II.
  • Battle of Kursk

    Battle of Kursk
    The Battle of Kursk gives its name to a series of armed clashes that took place between July and August 1943 in the region of the same name in Russia in the context of World War II.

    On July 10, 1943, British and American troops landed in the south-east of the island and occupied it in just over a month. The Allied invasion of Italian territory causes, on July 24, the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III, to order the arrest of Mussolini.

    French general and stateman who refused to accept the French government's trace with the Germans and escaped to London where he announced the formation of a French Government in exile after 2WW.
  • Battle of the bulge

    Battle of the bulge
    Major German offensive, launched at the end of World War II, through the dense forests and mountains of the Ardennes region of Belgium and more specifically Wallonia, hence its name in French, Bataille des Ardennes, France and Luxembourg in the western front
  • Normandy's landing

    Normandy's landing
    On June 6, 1944, American, British, French, and Canadian troops, among others, attacked the German army on the northern coast of France.
  • Final solution

    Final solution
    Massive and planned elimination of Jews in gas chambers and their disappearance in the crematorium ovens of the extermination camps.

    British Conservative politician and stateman whose speeches stirred Britain to continue fighting until the US and the USSR joined the war in 1941.
  • Yalta conference

    Yalta conference
    Meeting held before the end of World War II by Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt, as Prime Ministers of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    Conference where the allies reached important agreements, fundamentally regarding the future of Germany. The plan of the four “D” was approved: demilitarization, denazification, decartelization and democratization of Germany.
  • San francisco conference

    San francisco conference
    Convention of delegates from 50 allied nations during World War II, held from April 25, 1945 to June 26, 1945 in San Francisco, United States
  • UN (ONU)

    UN (ONU)
    Organization that includes the maintenance of peace and security, the right of self-determination of peoples, defense of the rights of the person and peaceful cooperation between peoples.
  • Liberation of Auschwitz

    Liberation of Auschwitz
    On January 27, 1945, the Red Army freed 7,600 prisoners, a large part was confined to the infirmary and the rest had not had the strength to undertake that death march.

    Atomic bombs that hit the Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945
  • IMF (FMI)

    IMF (FMI)
    The IMF is concerned with promoting international monetary cooperation, ensuring financial stability, facilitating international trade, promoting high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reducing poverty worldwide.
  • Iron Curtain

    Iron Curtain
    Term created by Churchill 1946 to describe the Soviet influence on the countries of central Europe and the division of the world into two blocks.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    Foreign policy focused on the containment of communism through a program of economic aid to the countries of Western Europe in 1947
  • Treaty of Rio de Janeiro

    Treaty of Rio de Janeiro
    Signed by the US with the countries of Latin America in 1947, which led in 1951 to the creation of the OAS (Organization of American States)
  • Bipolar system

    Bipolar system
    A bipolar system was articulated in which both superpowers, with a similar warlike and destructive capacity, maintained a climate of tension based on mutual threat.
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    State of permanent tension between the western or capitalist bloc and the communist between 1947 and 1991 as a consequence of the Second World War
  • CIA

    The Central Intelligence Agency is the main intelligence agency of the United States federal government. The CIA performs three main activities. These are: collecting information on foreign governments, corporations and individuals; analyze that information and provide an intelligence assessment for national security, so that the United States correctly approaches its policies.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    Aid plan to revive the European economy that benefited several European countries at the beginning of the Cold War.

    Defensive military alliance against any possible aggression against the Western world that was signed in Washington in the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949

    Economic Mutual Aid Council whose aim was to coordinate the economic planning of the Eastern Bloc countries and their mutual aid system in 1949
  • Greek Civil War

    Greek Civil War
    Civil War in Greece between the communist partisans indirectly supported by the USSR and the monarchists who had British help.
  • Korean war

    Korean war
    After the Japanese defeat in 1945, it was divided into two states by the 38ºN parallel. North Korea and South Korea fought in this war.

    Alliance between Australia, New Zealand and the United States that took place in 1951.
  • Peaceful coexistence

    Peaceful coexistence
    Stage in which tensions between the two powers were relaxed due to Eisenhower becoming president of the USA and Khrushchev secretary of the PCUS in 1953.

    Composed of Australia, France, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and the USA
  • Warsaw pact

    Warsaw pact
    Alliance between the USSR and the European countries of the Soviet orbit to defend themselves against any aggression from the Western bloc founded in 1955
  • Baghdad pact

    Baghdad pact
    Signed on February 24, 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979. The objective for which the pact was created was similar to that of NATO: to curb Soviet influence this time in the Middle East and its surroundings.
  • Bilateral treaties

    Bilateral treaties
    Treaty between the Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan and Spain.
  • Space race

    Space race
    The Space Race was a competition between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted from approximately 1955 to 1975. It involved a parallel effort between the two countries to explore outer space with artificial satellites, to send humans into space, and to land a human on Moon.
  • Hungarian revolution

    Hungarian revolution
    In Hungary a movement arose to criticize communism and in October 1956 there were demonstrations demanding freedoms. Later Hungary announced its departure from the Warsaw Pact and asked the UN to be recognized as a neutral country. Soviet tanks entered and finished off the Hungarian pretensions.
  • Suez Canal Crisis

    Suez Canal Crisis
    In October 1956, Egyptian President Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, prompting a military operation led by France and the United Kingdom. This intervention failed.
  • Berlin Wall

    Berlin Wall
    Wall that divided Berlin for almost thirty years due to the escape of the inhabitants of East Germany to West Germany that was built in 1961
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    US spy planes detected in 1962 the presence of a Soviet nuclear missile ramp and President Kennedy carried out a naval blockade. Later, Khrushchev ordered a withdrawal of the Soviet ships and the dismantling of the missile ramps in exchange for the United States agreeing not to invade Cuba.
  • John F Kennedy

    John F Kennedy
    Democratic politician, known as JFK, he was the thirty-fifth president of the United States. Kennedy became the youngest president of his country, after Theodore Roosevelt. He served as president three years until his assassination
  • John F. Kennedy

    John F. Kennedy
    American politician and diplomat who served as the thirty-fifth president of the United States. He was also known as Jack by his friends or by his nickname JFK.
  • Prague Spring

    Prague Spring
    In 1968 a series of political and economic changes were made in Cuba that raised possibilities of building a "Human Face" socialism, however the USSR did not allow it.
  • Nikita Kruschev

    Nikita Kruschev
    Leader of the Soviet Union who played a major role during part of the Cold War.
  • Yom Kippur War

    Yom Kippur War
    War in which Egypt and Syria fought against Israel. The United States and the USSR participated indirectly. Finally, a ceasefire was reached, but this war had long-term consequences.
  • Chilean dictatorship

    Chilean dictatorship
    In 1973 the US government financed a coup to overthrow President Salvador Allende, after which it led to the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    War fought between 1955 and 1975 to reunify Vietnam under a communist government. North Vietnam, under a communist regime, and South Vietnam, under a dictatorial regime, clashed.
  • Mao Zedong

    Mao Zedong
    Chinese politician, philosopher and military strategist. He was the founder and top leader of the Communist Party of China, as well as the founder and president of the People's Republic of China.
  • Afghanistan war

    Afghanistan war
    First phase of the extensive conflict of the Afghan civil war, which is known as the "Soviet Vietnam" for the failure of the USSR in Afghanistan.
  • The fall of the Berlin Wall

    The fall of the Berlin Wall
    Popular revolt produced in the East German capital, East Berlin, on November 9, 1989, as a result of which the Berlin Wall was demolished.
  • Mijail Gorbachov

    Mijail Gorbachov
    Russian lawyer and politician who was General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 and Head of State of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1991.

    On December 8, when together with his counterparts from Belarus and Ukraine he signed the Treaty of Belavezha, ending the Soviet Union and creating in its place the Commonwealth of Independent States.