Educational History

  • First "English Academy" started (choice)

    This school emphasizes seclularism, which goes against the ideas of religiousness in education.
  • Revolutionary War 1775-1783 (equity/equality)

  • Declaration of Independence (choice/ equality)

  • Land ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787 (quality/excellence)

    Both set aside land for public education
  • Bill of Rights adopted (equality/ excellence)

    the tenth admendment makes education a function of the state
  • Schools for both African Americans and women open (equity)

    Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
    African Institute
  • First mandatory attendance law (quality/excellence)

    in Massachusetts, followed by other states
  • 1861-1865 US Civil War (choice/ equity)

    educational progress almost completely stops. War destroys educational buildings and reduces funds for education
  • First Morrill Act (quality/excellence)

    Land Grant Act; creates funds for state colleges
  • Department of Education created (efficiency)

  • 14th admendent ratified (equity)

    includes due process and equal protection under the law
  • Michigan State Supreme Court: levy taxes for public HS (quality/excellence)

    said Kalazoo could levy taxes for this purpose
  • Second Morill Act (quality/ excellence)

    creates 16 black land grant colleges (reference separate but equal)
  • Committee of Ten (quality/excellence)

    said that all high school students should follow a college-bound curriculum although not all students are on this track
  • Spanish American War (quality/excellence)

    makes USA an international power (reference national concern over students keeping up in 21st century in 1980's to present)
  • Carnegie Unit (efficiency)

    Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching introduced seat time in units for courses (still used today)
  • 1914-1918 WWI (choice/ equality)

    Creation of the Army alpha and beta test (reference use of standardized tests)
  • John Dewey (quality/excellence)

    His views helps advance the progressive education movement
  • All states provide tranportation funds by law for students (efficiency)

  • 19th Admendmend Ratified (choice/ equality)

    women's right to vote
  • 1941-1945 US Involvement in WWII (choice/ equality)

    financial resources moved to the war effort, human resources and students leave schools to enlist
  • G.I. Bill (choice/ efficiency)

    creates an influx into colleges (over 2 million)
  • Mendez vs. Westminster and California BOE (equity)

    ruled that educating Mexican students and other students in different facilities is unconstitutional (refernce Brown vs. BOE)
  • Computer age begins (efficiency)

  • Truman Commission Report (efficiency)

    evaluated the role of higher education; shows need to increase community college enrollement
  • Civil Rights Movement begins (choice/ equity)

    continues today...
  • Brown vs. Topeka BOE (choice/ equity)

    separate but equal is not; desegregation
  • Little Rock 9 (choice/ equity)

    Nine black students attend Central High School enforced by federal troops
  • National Defense Education Act (excellence)

    With the Sputnik launch (1957- Soviet Union), feel of being behind helped to pass this act that funded science, math, and foreign language education
  • Engel vs. Vitale (equity/ equality)

    rules that a state prayer can not be created and mandated to be recited by students
  • Civil Rights Act becomes law (equity/equality)

    prohits discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, and national origin
  • Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty (equity/equality)

    Created ESEA, higher education act, project head start
  • Immigration Act of 1965 (choice)

    created situation for influx of Asian and Latin American immigrants to enter USA. (Carter also created an influx of immigrants to schools during his presidency)
  • 1965-1975 Vietnam War (efficiency)

    Multiple effects: funds for veterans to attend college, grade inflaiton to keep deferments in place, anti-war protests on campuses around country, including four students shot in Ohio on campus by National Guard
  • Coleman Report (equity/equality)

    African American students benefit from diversity in classroom (reference busing)
  • Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children vs. Pennsylvania (equity/equality)

    ruled mentally retarded students entitled to free public education. 1972 case (Mills vs. BOE Washington, DC) expanded this to include adequate alternative education
  • Title IX of the Education Admendment of 1972 (equity/equality)

    prohibits discrimination based on sex in educational settings
  • Rehabilitation Act (equity/equality)

    Section 504 allows for accomodations (504 Plans) of students with disabilities
  • Education of All Handicapped Children Act (equity/equality)

    free, appropriate public education of students with disabilities
  • Personal Computer (efficeincy)

    Apple computer creates first personal computer and students use these in educational setting
  • A Nation at Risk (quality/excellence)

    start of current accountability sytem
  • Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (quality/excellence)

    high stakes testing program, other states create similar programs
  • Improving America's Schools Act (quality/excellence)

    reforms for Title I, funds for biligual and immigrant education, provisions for charter schools, drop-out prevention, and technology
  • Georgia Preschool Access

    universal preschool for anyone that wants to participate
  • Columbine High School Shooting (efficiency/ school safety)

    start of higher rate of school shooting and increased concern for safety
  • No Child Left Behind Act (quality/excellence)

    high stakes testing mandates, pentalities for schools that do not demostrate student acheivement
  • IDEA 2004 (equity/equality)

    creates implementation of RTI to improve early detection of special education studets
  • Va Tech Shooting (efficiency)

    Deadliest school shooting, creates additional safety procedures for colleges around the country
  • Common Core (efficiency/ quality/excellence)

    many states adopt common core initiatives
  • NCLB Flexibility Waivers (efficiency)

    Flexibility waivers become availabel for states that have not reached acheivement goals
  • Sandy Hook Elementary Shooting (efficiency)

    creates a gun regulations fire storm (pun intended)
  • Teachers refuse to give high-stakes test (choice)

  • Teachers arm themselves (choice)

    Clarkville, Arkansas teachers and staff allowed to carry guns to school each day.